Cases reported "Parkinson Disease"

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1/106. Numerous and widespread alpha-synuclein-negative lewy bodies in an asymptomatic patient.

    lewy bodies (LB) and pale bodies (PB), their putative precursors, can be found in a spectrum of diseases characterized by parkinsonism and/or dementia. Furthermore, LB are occasionally observed in some other neurodegenerative diseases and in normal aging. Classical LB are typically found in the brain stem, especially in the substantia nigra, where these inclusions are associated with neuronal loss and clinical signs of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The so-called cortical LB occur in the cerebral cortex, amygdala and claustrum with little or no neuronal loss and are clinically associated with dementia in dementia with LB (DLB). We describe a patient without apparent clinical signs of parkinsonism and/or dementia, whose brain contained numerous classical-like LB, pale inclusions with features of PB and transitions between these two. These inclusions had similar immunohistological (ubiquitin positive; neurofilament positive; tau negative) and ultrastructural features as the LB in PD and DLB except for the lack of immunoreactivity for alpha-synuclein. The pons and cerebral cortex showed the highest number of LB, up to 165/1.76 mm2. These numbers were contrasted by the lack of obvious neuronal loss or gliosis. The absence of alpha-synuclein reactivity in the LB in this symptomless patient corroborates the hypothesis that alpha-synuclein accumulation in LB is an important step in neurodegeneration in PD and DLB, but tones down the role of alpha-synuclein in LB formation in general. This patient seems to represent a new variant in the spectrum of diseases associated with LB.
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2/106. A mutation at codon 279 (N279K) in exon 10 of the Tau gene causes a tauopathy with dementia and supranuclear palsy.

    Recently intronic and exonic mutations in the Tau gene have been found to be associated with familial neurodegenerative syndromes characterized not only by a predominantly frontotemporal dementia but also by the presence of neurological signs consistent with the dysfunction of multiple subcortical neuronal circuitries. Among families, the symptomatology appears to vary in quality and severity in relation to the specific Tau gene mutation and often may include parkinsonism, supranuclear palsies, and/or myoclonus, in addition to dementia. We carried out molecular genetic and neuropathological studies on two patients from a French family presenting, early in their fifth decade, a cognitive impairment and supranuclear palsy followed by an akinetic rigid syndrome and dementia. The proband died severely demented 7 years after the onset of the symptoms; currently, his brother is still alive although his disease is progressing. In both patients, we found a Tau gene mutation in exon 10 at codon 279, resulting in an asparagine to lysine substitution (N279K). Neuropathologically, widespread neuronal and glial tau accumulation in the cortex, basal ganglia, brain stem nuclei as well as in the white matter were the hallmark of the disease. These deposits were shown by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy, using a battery of antibodies to phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent epitopes present in multiple tau regions. In the neocortex, tau-immunopositive glial cells were more numerous than immunopositive neurons; the deeper cortical layers as well as the white matter adjacent to the cortex contained the largest amount of immunolabeled glial cells. In contrast, some brain stem nuclei contained more neurons with tau deposits than immunolabeled glial cells. The correlation of clinical, neuropathological and molecular genetic findings emphasize the phenotypic heterogeneity of diseases caused by Tau gene mutations. Furthermore, to test the effect of the N279K mutation and compare it with the effect of the P301L exon 10 mutation on alternative splicing of Tau exon 10, we used an exon amplification assay. Our results suggest that the N279K mutation affects splicing similar to the intronic mutations, allowing exon 10 to be incorporated more frequently in the Tau transcript.
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3/106. Bilateral contemporaneous posteroventral pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: neuropsychological and neurological side effects. Report of four cases and review of the literature.

    The authors report the underestimated cognitive, mood, and behavioral complications in patients who have undergone bilateral contemporaneous pallidotomy, as seen in their early experience with functional neurosurgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) that is accompanied by severe motor fluctuations before pallidal stimulation. Four patients, not suffering from dementia, with advanced (Hoehn and Yahr Stages III-IV), medically untreatable PD featuring severe "on-off" fluctuations underwent bilateral contemporaneous posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP). All patients were evaluated according to the Core Assessment Program for Intracerebral Transplantations (CAPIT) protocol without positron emission tomography scans but with additional neuropsychological cognitive, mood, and behavior testing. For the first 3 to 6 months postoperatively, all patients showed a mean improvement of motor scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), in the best "on" (21%) and worst "off" (40%) UPDRS III motor subscale, a mean 30% improvement in the UPDRS II activities of daily living (ADL) subscore, and 60% on the UPDRS IV complications of treatment subscale. Dyskinesia disappeared almost completely, and the mean daily duration of the off time was reduced by an average of 60%. Despite these good results in the CAPIT scores, one patient experienced a partially regressive corticobulbar syndrome with dysphagia, dysarthria, and increased drooling. No emotional lability was found in this patient, but he did demonstrate severe bilateral postoperative pretarsal blepharospasm (apraxia of eyelid opening), which interfered with walking and which required treatment with high-dose subcutaneous injections of botulinum toxin. No patient showed visual field defects or hemiparesis, but postoperative depression, changes in personality, behavior, and executive functions were seen in two individuals. Postoperative abulia was reported by the family of one patient, who lost his preoperative aggressiveness and drive in terms of ADL, speech, business, family life, and hobbies, and became more sleepy and fatigued. One patient reported postoperative mental automatisms, such as compulsive mental counting, and circular thoughts and reasoning during off phases; postoperative depression was found in two patients. However, none of the patients demonstrated these symptoms during intraoperative microelectrode stimulation. These findings are compatible with previous reports on bilateral pallidal lesions. A progressive lowering of UPDRS subscores was seen after 12 months, consistent with the progression of the disease. Bilateral simultaneous pallidotomy may be followed by emotional, behavioral, and cognitive deficits such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and loss of psychic autoactivation-abulia, as well as disabling corticobulbar dysfunction and apraxia of eyelid opening, in addition to previously described motor and visual field deficits, which make this surgery undesirable even though significant improvement in motor deficits can be achieved.
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4/106. dopamine release from nigral transplants visualized in vivo in a Parkinson's patient.

    Synaptic dopamine release from embryonic nigral transplants has been monitored in the striatum of a patient with Parkinson's disease using [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography to measure dopamine D2 receptor occupancy by the endogenous transmitter. In this patient, who had received a transplant in the right putamen 10 years earlier, grafts had restored both basal and drug-induced dopamine release to normal levels. This was associated with sustained, marked clinical benefit and normalized levels of dopamine storage in the grafted putamen. Despite an ongoing disease process, grafted neurons can thus continue for a decade to store and release dopamine and give rise to substantial symptomatic relief.
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5/106. Efficacy of quetiapine in Parkinson's patients with psychosis.

    Eleven patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and acute psychosis received flexible doses of quetiapine between 25 and 300 mg/day based on clinical response and tolerance. Ten patients were receiving dopaminergic agents at baseline. Serial efficacy ratings (brief psychiatric rating scale, Clinical Global Impressions Scale), neuromuscular symptom assessments (Abnormal Involuntary movement Scale, Simpson-Angus Scale, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]), and adverse events monitoring were performed for up to 52 weeks. The patients had moderate hallucinations and/or delusions at baseline before the initiation of quetiapine. Nine of the 11 patients completed at least 12 weeks of treatment. Quetiapine was well tolerated in all but one patient, who became dizzy within the first week and withdrew from the study. Ten patients presented with moderate visual hallucinations. Quetiapine was markedly effective in controlling visual hallucinations in six of these patients. Symptoms of paranoia or delusions were less responsive to quetiapine. Four patients withdrew because of adverse events or comorbid medical problems, two withdrew because of a lack of efficacy, and five completed 52 weeks of treatment. The introduction of quetiapine did not exacerbate parkinsonian symptoms. Motor dysfunction, as measured by the UPDRS, revealed a slow, gradual worsening consistent with the progression of PD. Atypical antipsychotic medications such as quetiapine have a reduced likelihood of causing adverse drug-induced parkinsonism and therefore a possible role in treating psychotic symptoms in patients with PD.
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6/106. hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors.

    hallucinations, mainly of a visual nature, are considered to affect about one-quarter of patients with Parkinson's disease. They are commonly viewed as a side-effect of antiparkinsonian treatment, but other factors may be involved. The aim of this study was to determine the phenomenology, prevalence and risk factors of hallucinations in Parkinson's disease. Two-hundred and sixteen consecutive patients fulfilling clinical criteria for Parkinson's disease were studied. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded, including motor and cognitive status, depressive symptoms and sleep-wake disturbances. patients with and without hallucinations were compared using non-parametric tests, and logistic regression was applied to significant data. hallucinations had been present during the previous 3 months in 39.8% of the patients, and fell into three categories: minor forms, consisting of a sensation of a presence (person), a sideways passage (commonly of an animal) or illusions were present in 25.5% of the patients (an isolated occurrence in 14.3%), formed visual hallucinations were present in 22.2% (isolated in 9.3%) and auditory hallucinations were present in 9.7% (isolated in 2.3%). patients with minor hallucinations had a higher depression score than non-hallucinators but did not differ in other respects. Logistic regression analysis identified three factors independently predictive of formed visual hallucinations: severe cognitive disorders, daytime somnolence and a long duration of Parkinson's disease. These findings indicate that, when minor hallucinations are included, the total prevalence is much higher than previously reported. A simple side-effect of dopaminergic treatment is not sufficient to explain the occurrence of all visual hallucinations. The main risk factor in treated patients is cognitive impairment, although sleep-wake cycle disturbances, and possibly other factors related to the duration of the disease, act as cofactors.
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7/106. The behavioral complications of pallidal stimulation: a case report.

    We report a case of recurrent manic episodes associated with chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting globus pallidus (GP) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cardinal PD symptoms and dyskinesia improved with DBS, and neuropsychological testing found improvements in visuospatial measures associated with left DBS and in verbal memory with right DBS when compared to the patient's preoperative baseline. Under conditions of right, left, and bilateral DBS, the patient experienced bouts of mania and hypomania lasting several days at a time. Positron emission tomography (PET) with (15)O-labeled water was performed after his first manic episode under four conditions: no stimulation, right DBS, left DBS, and bilateral DBS. Although no manic switch occurred during the course of the PET study, all three DBS conditions were associated with decreases in regional flow in the left parahippocampus and hippocampus and right mid-cingulate gyrus. Increases in flow in left inferior frontal area, bilateral insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and cuneus were common to all DBS conditions. GP stimulation in PD may be associated with behavioral and cognitive effects. Distributed blood flow changes observed with pallidal DBS support a role for the pallidum in cognition and affective regulation.
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8/106. hallucinations, REM sleep, and Parkinson's disease: a medical hypothesis.

    BACKGROUND: patients with PD can have disabling visual hallucinations associated with dopaminergic therapy. sleep disorders, including vivid dreams and REM sleep with motor behaviors (RBD), are frequent in these patients. methods: The association of hallucinations and REM sleep both at night and during the day was examined in 10 consecutive nondemented patients with long-standing levodopa-responsive PD and hallucinations. Seven patients presented with paranoia and paranoid delusions. Overnight sleep recordings and standard multiple daytime sleep latency test were performed. The results were compared to those of 10 similar patients with PD not experiencing hallucinations. RESULTS: RBD was detected in all 10 patients with hallucinations and in six without. Although nighttime sleep conditions were similar in both groups, hallucinators tended to be sleepier during the day. delusions following nighttime REM period and daytime REM onsets were observed in three and eight of the hallucinators, and zero and two of the others. Daytime hallucinations, coincident with REM sleep intrusions during periods of wakefulness, were reported only by hallucinators. Postmortem examination of the brain of one patient showed numerous lewy bodies in neurons of the subcoeruleus nucleus, a region that is involved in REM sleep control. CONCLUSION: The visual hallucinations that coincide with daytime episodes of REM sleep in patients who also experience post-REM delusions at night may be dream imagery. Psychosis in patients with PD may therefore reflect a narcolepsy-like REM sleep disorder.
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9/106. Visual hallucinations induced by deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    We report a patient with idiopathic Parkinson's disease who underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus subthalamicus (STN) and developed visual hallucinations (VH) while taking no medications only when the DBS was turned on. The hallucinations resolved when the stimulator was turned off. The phenomenology and the prompt response to clozapine suggest that DBS-induced VH mimic pharmacologically-induced VH.
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10/106. A case of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism of early onset with progressive supranuclear palsy-like features.

    We report a patient with frontotemporal degeneration and parkinsonism with mental retardation. The patient was a 54-year-old man who had parkinsonism that resembled progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal degeneration and myoclonus. His family included many affected members. Neuropathologically, there was degeneration of the frontal and temporal cortices, the basal ganglia, the brainstem and the cerebellum. Microscopically, neuronal loss was severe in the frontal and temporal cortex, the globus pallidus, substantia nigra, red nucleus and dentate nucleus. Fibrillary changes were found in neurons and glia that were immunostained for tau. Although we could not define the genetic abnormalities, we thought that this case might have involved frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17.
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