Cases reported "Parkinson Disease"

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1/29. Parallel processing of sensory inputs: an evoked potentials study in Parkinsonian patients implanted with thalamic stimulators.

    In two drug-resistant Parkinsonian subjects, who underwent thalamic chronic stimulation for extrapyramidal symptoms relief, median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded before and at different times following the thalamic lead implant. In both subjects, a transient obliteration of post-rolandic SEPs components was detected; pre-rolandic waves' amplitude was preserved or showed a tendency to increase after the beginning of chronic stimulation. Parietal waves' amplitude totally recovered pre-surgical values after 1 month. Latency of both pre- and post-central components remained stable. The 'dissociate behaviour' of the examined waves following the thalamic implant reinforces the hypothesis that short-latency sensory inputs are processed by separate and independent routes which are functionally segregated at subcortical level.
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2/29. Treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields improves olfactory function in Parkinson's disease.

    Olfactory dysfunction is a common symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). It may manifest in the early stages of the disease and infrequently may even antedate the onset of motor symptoms. The cause of olfactory dysfunction in PD remains unknown. Pathological changes characteristic of PD (i.e., lewy bodies) have been demonstrated in the olfactory bulb which contains a large population of dopaminergic neurons involved in olfactory information processing. Since dopaminergic drugs do not affect olfactory threshold in PD patients, it has been suggested that olfactory dysfunction in these patients is not dependent on dopamine deficiency. I present two fully medicated Parkinsonian patients with long standing history of olfactory dysfunction in whom recovery of smell occurred during therapeutic transcranial application of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla flux density. In both patients improvement of smell during administration of EMFs occurred in conjunction with recurrent episodes of yawning. The temporal association between recovery of smell and yawning behavior is remarkable since yawning is mediated by activation of a subpopulation of striatal and limbic postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors induced by increased synaptic dopamine release. A high density of dopamine D2 receptors is present in the olfactory bulb and tract. Degeneration of olfactory dopaminergic neurons may lead to upregulation (i.e., supersensitivity) of postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors. Presumably, small amounts of dopamine released into the synapses of the olfactory bulb during magnetic stimulation may cause activation of these supersensitive receptors resulting in enhanced sense of smell. Interestingly, in both patients enhancement of smell perception occurred only during administration of EMFs of 7 Hz frequency implying that the release of dopamine and activation of dopamine D2 receptors in the olfactory bulb was partly frequency dependent. In fact, weak magnetic fields have been found to cause interaction with biological systems only within narrow frequency ranges (i.e., frequency windows) and the existence of such frequency ranges has been explained on the basis of the cyclotron resonance model.
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3/29. AC pulsed electromagnetic fields-induced sexual arousal and penile erections in Parkinson's disease.

    Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) since brain dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of sexual behavior. Activation of dopamine D2 receptor sites, with resultant release of oxytocin from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, induces sexual arousal and erectile responses in experimental animals and humans. In Parkinsonian patients subcutaneous administration of apomorphine, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, induces sexual arousal and penile erections. It has been suggested that the therapeutic efficacy of transcranial administration of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla flux density in PD involves the activation of dopamine D2 receptor sites which are the principal site of action of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy in PD. Here, 1 report 2 elderly male PD patients who experienced sexual dysfunction which was recalcitrant to treatment with anti Parkinsonian agents including selegiline, levodopa and tolcapone. However, brief transcranial administrations of AC pulsed EMFs in the picotesla flux density induced in these patients sexual arousal and spontaneous nocturnal erections. These findings support the notion that central activation of dopamine D2 receptor sites is associated with the therapeutic efficacy of AC pulsed EMFs in PD. In addition, since the right hemisphere is dominant for sexual activity, partly because of a dopaminergic bias of this hemisphere, these findings suggest that right hemispheric activation in response to administration of AC pulsed EMFs was associated in these patient with improved sexual functions.
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4/29. yawning and stretching induced by transcranial application of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields in Parkinson's disease.

    yawning is considered a brainstem regulated behavior which is associated with changes in arousal and activity levels. yawning and stretching are dopamine (DA) mediated behaviors and pharmacological studies indicate that these behaviors are associated with increased DA release coupled with stimulation of postsynaptic DA-D2 receptors. Despite their relation to the dopaminergic system, yawning and stretching are poorly documented in untreated or treated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A 49 year old fully medicated female patient with juvenile onset PD is presented in whom recurrent episodes of yawning and stretching developed during transcranial administration of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EM Fs) of picotesla flux density. These episodes have not been observed previously in this or other patients during treatment with levodopa or DA receptor agonists or in unmedicated PD patients during treatment with AC pulsed EMFs. It is suggested that yawning and stretching behavior resulted in this patient from a synergistic interaction between EMFs and DA derived from levodopa supplementation with EMFs possibly facilitating the release of DA and simultaneously activating postsynaptic DA-D2 receptors in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways. In addition, it is postulated that the release of ACTH/MSH peptides from peptidergic neurons in the brain upon stimulation of the DA-D2 receptors reinforced the yawning and stretching behavior.
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5/29. Severe forward flexion of the trunk in Parkinson's disease: focal myopathy of the paraspinal muscles mimicking camptocormia.

    Pronounced forward flexion of the trunk, often termed camptocormia, is a typical symptom of patients with Parkinson's disease. In 4 parkinsonian patients with camptocormia, paraspinal muscles were studied by electromyography (EMG) and axial computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and muscle biopsy. EMG of the lumbar and thoracic paravertebral muscles showed abundant fibrillations, positive sharp waves, and bizarre high-frequency discharges. Spinal CT and MRI scans revealed variable degrees of atrophy and fatty replacement of the thoracolumbar paraspinal muscles on both sides. No other signs of neuromuscular disease were found. biopsy of the paraspinal muscles revealed end-stage myopathy with autophagic vacuoles, chronic inflammatory myopathy, unspecific myopathic changes, or mitochondrial myopathy. In parkinsonian patients with pronounced forward flexion of the trunk, myopathy confined to the erector spinae muscles must be considered.
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6/29. Mohs micrographic surgery in a patient with a deep brain stimulator: a review of the literature on implantable electrical devices.

    BACKGROUND: Implantable electrical devices are becoming increasingly common in the patient population presenting for Mohs micrographic surgery. In addition to understanding the potential intraoperative complications with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and pacemakers, the Mohs surgeon needs to be aware of the relatively new treatment of movement disorders using implanted deep brain stimulators. OBJECTIVE: We present only the second reported case of mohs surgery in a patient with a deep brain stimulator. In an attempt to help minimize adverse events during a procedure, we review the more commonly encountered electrical devices as well as the newer deep brain stimulators. We provide guidelines for the avoidance of electromagnetic interference during an electrosurgical procedure. methods: This 76-year-old patient with Parkinson's disease and an implanted deep brain stimulator underwent mohs surgery for excision of a squamous cell carcinoma on the ear. In an attempt to minimize electromagnetic interference with his implanted device, hemostasis was obtained with the aid of a battery-operated heat-generating handheld electrocautery device. RESULTS: The patient tolerated the procedure well without complications or reports of discomfort. CONCLUSION: patients with implanted electrical devices are subject to electromagnetic interference during an electrosurgical procedure. Care must be taken in this expanding patient population during a Mohs surgical procedure.
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keywords = electromagnetic
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7/29. Acute cervical motor radiculopathy induced by neck and limb immobilization in a patient with parkinson disease.

    A 68-year-old woman with parkinson disease (PD) presented with acute monoplegia of her left upper extremity after the neck and limb immobilization for several hours. Her sensory function was normal, and the chest X-ray showed left phrenic nerve palsy. Electrophysiological studies showed multi-segment muscle involvement (C3 to T1) including denervation potentials and reduced interference of motor units in needle electromyography. M wave amplitude in peripheral nerve stimulation was preserved except for the ulnar nerve, suggesting both axonal injury and conduction block at the anterior spinal roots. The patient showed fair recovery in several months, suggesting sufficient reinnervation and recovery of conduction block. Incomplete root avulsion was thought to be the pathomechanism of acute cervical motor radiculopathy.
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8/29. Periodic triphasic waves in levodopa-induced encephalopathy.

    Four patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease developed subacute confusional states, associated with delusions, hallucinations, and myoclonus, following an increase in the dose of levodopa. The EEG revealed periodic generalized triphasic waves. The clinical condition and EEG cleared following levodopa dose reduction or discontinuation. This is the first report of encephalopathy associated with periodic triphasic activity following levodopa treatment.
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9/29. A natural and broad spectrum nootropic substance for treatment of SDAT--the ginkgo biloba extract.

    The efficacy of the ginkgo biloba extract was not only found clinically or in standardised ratings but also documented by objective data, obtained by a computerized EEG method, the DYNAMIC brain mapping and BRAIN FUNCTION MONITORING SYSTEM (Dr. T. Itil, new york). A one year open trial comprise 25 parkinson patients with additional signs of SDAT. Data from 3 selected cases were given: The short time efficacy of the substance after the infusion and the long-term result after the oral medication. The maps showed less slower and more faster waves. Without any side effects the ginkgo biloba extract seems to be a substance with a broad spectrum of influence. Our therapeutic findings in parkinsonian patients with SDAT and the data taken from healthy elderly volunteers revealed that the computerized EEG method may have another big advantage: It seems that the so-called anteriorisation of the Theta waves can be taken as a preclinical sign of an incipient change in brain metabolism. As a consequence--it might be that these changes are reversible by an adequate nootropic treatment. Further studies and treatment experiences must confirm these preliminary findings.
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10/29. Vocal symptoms in parkinson disease treated with levodopa. A case report.

    This is a report of a patient with unusually severe hoarseness in the absence of vocal fold pathology demonstrating parkinson disease as one of the neurological diseases in which vocal symptoms occur. Although it is classifiably a severe, progressive, degenerative disorder, the popularity of pharmacotherapy for parkinson disease during the past decade has resulted in improved functionality for an undetermined course of time in most patients. The classically described deterioration of speech ad voice may develop in a variant manner difficult to distinguish as disease-related, as this case report illustrates. An explanation of the hoarseness based on dyssynchronous vocal fold motion related to the disease is suggested by the acoustic methods (spectrography, waveform analysis) used in this study, and supported by strobe light laryngoscopy. This conclusion is important because of the extremely high incidences of varying degrees of hoarseness reported in recent studies of parkinson disease.
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