Cases reported "Parkinson Disease"

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1/169. Transplant of cultured neuron-like differentiated chromaffin cells in a Parkinson's disease patient. A preliminary report.

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been attempted by others by transplanting either the patient's own adrenal medullary tissue or fetal substantia nigra into caudate or putamen areas. However, the difficulties inherent in using the patient's own adrenal gland, or the difficulty in obtaining human fetal tissue, has generated the need to find alternative methods. methods: We report here of an alternative to both procedures by using as transplant material cultured human adrenal chromaffin cells differentiated into neuron-like cells by extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF). RESULTS: The results of this study show that human differentiated chromaffin cells can be grafted into the caudate nucleus of a PD patient, generating substantial clinical improvement, as measured by the Unified Rating Scale for PD, which correlated with glucose metabolism and D2 DA receptor increases as seen in a PET scan, while allowing a 70% decrease in L-Dopa medication. DISCUSSION: This is the first preliminary report showing that transplants of cultured differentiated neuron-like cells can be successfully used to treat a PD patient.
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2/169. Parkinson's syndrome after closed head injury: a single case report.

    A 36 year old man, who sustained a skull fracture in 1984, was unconscious for 24 hours, and developed signs of Parkinson's syndrome 6 weeks after the injury. When assessed in 1995, neuroimaging disclosed a cerebral infarction due to trauma involving the left caudate and lenticular nucleus. Parkinson's syndrome was predominantly right sided, slowly progressive, and unresponsive to levodopa therapy. reaction time tests showed slowness of movement initiation and execution with both hands, particularly the right. Recording of movement related cortical potentials suggested bilateral deficits in movement preparation. Neuropsychological assessment disclosed no evidence of major deficits on tests assessing executive function or working memory, with the exception of selective impairments on the Stroop and on a test of self ordered random number sequences. There was evidence of abulia. The results are discussed in relation to previous literature on basal ganglia lesions and the effects of damage to different points of the frontostriatal circuits.
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3/169. From off-period dystonia to peak-dose chorea. The clinical spectrum of varying subthalamic nucleus activity.

    The effect of chronic bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on levodopa-induced dyskinaesias was investigated in eight patients with fluctuating Parkinson's disease complicated by functionally disabling off-period dystonia. All of the patients also had severe diphasic and peak-dose chorea, so that it was possible to study the effect of high-frequency stimulation on the different types of levodopa-induced dyskinaesias. Off-period fixed dystonia was reduced by 90% and off-period pain by 66%. After acute levodopa challenge, high-frequency stimulation of the STN reduced diphasic mobile dystonia by 50% and peak-dose choreic dyskinaesias by 30%. The effect of bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the STN on the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale motor score had the same magnitude as the preoperative effect of levodopa. This allowed the levodopa dose to be reduced by 47%. The combination of reduced medication and continuous high-frequency stimulation of the STN reduced the duration of on-period diphasic and peak-dose dyskinaesias by 52% and the intensity by 68%. Acute high-frequency stimulation of the STN mimics an acute levodopa challenge, concerning both parkinsonism and dyskinaesias, and suppresses off-period dystonia. Increasing the voltage can induce repetitive dystonic dyskinaesias, mimicking diphasic levodopa-induced dyskinaesias. A further increase in voltage leads to a shift from a diphasic-pattern dystonia to a peak-dose pattern choreodystonia. Chronic high-frequency stimulation of the STN also mimics the benefit of levodopa on parkinsonism and improves all kinds of levodopa-induced dyskinaesias to varying degrees. Off-period dystonia, associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the STN is directly affected by stimulation and disappears immediately. The effect of chronic high-frequency stimulation of the STN on diphasic and peak-dose dyskinaesias is more complex and is related directly to the functional inhibition of the STN and indirectly to the replacement of the pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation by continuous functional inhibition of the STN. Chronic high-frequency stimulation of the STN allows a very gradual increase in stimulation parameters with increasing beneficial effect on parkinsonism while reducing the threshold for the elicitation of stimulation-induced dyskinaesias. In parallel with improvement of parkinsonism, the levodopa dose can be gradually decreased. As diphasic dystonic dyskinaesias are improved to a greater degree than peak-dose dyskinaesias, both direct and indirect mechanisms may be involved. Peak-dose choreatic dyskinaesias, associated with little evidence of parkinsonism and thus with low neuronal activity in the STN, are improved, mostly indirectly. Fixed off-period dystonia, mobile diphasic dystonia and peak-dose choreodystonia seem to represent a continuous clinical spectrum reflecting a continuous spectrum of underlying activity patterns of STN neurons.
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4/169. Restricted occurrence of lewy bodies in the dorsal vagal nucleus in a patient with late-onset parkinsonism.

    Lewy body (LB) is consistently found in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease. We report a 68-year-old woman with late-onset, dopa-responsive parkinsonism. Her parents were first cousins, but no other affected individuals were present in the family. autopsy revealed moderate loss of pigmented neurons with gliosis, but neither LBs nor neurofibrillary tangles in the substantia nigra. The locus ceruleus showed neuronal loss with scarce LBs. The most striking change was found in the dorsal vagal nucleus, where marked neuronal loss and fibrillary gliosis with many LBs were evident. Despite the use of ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein immunohistochemistry, no further LBs were identified in other brain regions. These findings suggest that this case was an unusual, anatomically restricted manifestation of LB disease.
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5/169. Clinical and physiological characteristics of autonomic failure with Parkinson's disease.

    We analyzed the clinical and physiological features of autonomic failure with Parkinson's disease (AF-PD) in seven patients and compared them with those of autonomic failure with multiple system atrophy (AF-MSA). In AF-PD, parkinsonism was more gradually progressive than in AF-MSA, and symptoms were responsive to L-dopa. All seven patients with AF-PD had orthostatic hypotension, postprandial hypotension, and constipation, but no urinary retention. Of these, three had hypohidrosis and five had frequent urination; five patients had subnormal plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentrations. Supersensitivity to NE infusion was observed in all patients. head-up tilting (HUT) test resulted in no increase of plasma NE concentrations in both groups, but a significant increase of the plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations in the patients with AF-PD. Urodynamic studies revealed that urinary bladder function was relatively well preserved in AF-PD in contrast to AF-MSA. In conclusion, there exists some clinical and physiological differences in autonomic features between AF-PD and AF-MSA, and postganglionic involvement predominates in AF-PD.
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6/169. Limb contractures in levodopa-responsive parkinsonism: a clinical and investigational study of seven new cases.

    We describe six patients with classical levodopa-responsive Parkinson's disease (PD) and one case of levodopa-responsive familial juvenile dystonia-parkinsonism with fixed contractures of the hands, feet or legs. In most patients contractures became established over a short period (2 months-2 years) but a considerable time after onset of parkinsonism (mean 13 years). Mean disease duration was 17 years, and all patients had severe levodopa-induced dyskinesias, either biphasic or peak dose, in the affected limb prior to onset of the contracture. Nerve conduction studies excluded peripheral ulnar nerve lesions in all patients with one exception, who was found to have a mild bilateral ulnar entrapment neuropathy. transcranial magnetic stimulation performed in five of the seven patients showed shorter mean central motor conduction time in the affected than in the unaffected limb. Results of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain performed in a subgroup of patients were normal, with no evidence to suggest multiple system atrophy, cerebral infarction or focal abnormalities of the basal ganglia. We conclude that hand and feet contractures are not necessarily restricted to parkinson plus syndromes and may complicate otherwise typical PD in the absence of a structural or peripheral nervous cause. Striatal dopaminergic deficiency, particularly long-standing, may have a role in the pathogenesis of limb contractures in PD.
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7/169. AC pulsed electromagnetic fields-induced sexual arousal and penile erections in Parkinson's disease.

    Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) since brain dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of sexual behavior. Activation of dopamine D2 receptor sites, with resultant release of oxytocin from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, induces sexual arousal and erectile responses in experimental animals and humans. In Parkinsonian patients subcutaneous administration of apomorphine, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, induces sexual arousal and penile erections. It has been suggested that the therapeutic efficacy of transcranial administration of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla flux density in PD involves the activation of dopamine D2 receptor sites which are the principal site of action of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy in PD. Here, 1 report 2 elderly male PD patients who experienced sexual dysfunction which was recalcitrant to treatment with anti Parkinsonian agents including selegiline, levodopa and tolcapone. However, brief transcranial administrations of AC pulsed EMFs in the picotesla flux density induced in these patients sexual arousal and spontaneous nocturnal erections. These findings support the notion that central activation of dopamine D2 receptor sites is associated with the therapeutic efficacy of AC pulsed EMFs in PD. In addition, since the right hemisphere is dominant for sexual activity, partly because of a dopaminergic bias of this hemisphere, these findings suggest that right hemispheric activation in response to administration of AC pulsed EMFs was associated in these patient with improved sexual functions.
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8/169. Effect of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation and dopatherapy on oral control in Parkinson's disease.

    This study focuses on the speech organs of a parkinsonian patient who initially had been treated with levodopa for 13 years, and had become severely disabled by motor fluctuations. This patient has been treated with bilateral chronic stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for the last 2 years. Upper lip, lower lip and tongue force production were examined before surgery under off and on medication conditions, and 2 years after surgery under off and on stimulation conditions. We compared the effect of stimulation and dopatherapy on the speech organs. L-Dopa had a poor effect whereas bilateral stimulation improved oral control and speech intelligibility. These results suggest that STN stimulation influences speech organs in a different way from the dopaminergic system and similarly affects oral and limb motor systems.
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9/169. apomorphine test: a predictor for motor responsiveness to deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    The value of the apomorphine test as a predictor of the clinical outcome of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) was evaluated in patients with advanced idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) or multiple system atrophy (MSA). Thirteen IPD patients with severe diurnal fluctuations and one MSA patient not responding to dopaminergic drugs were assessed with the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the timed finger tapping test (FTT), measured preoperatively on and off apomorphine and postoperatively on and off STN stimulation. UPDRS motor items 20-25 were assessed intraoperatively on and off STN stimulation when the clinically effective target was approached. The motor response to immediate intraoperative and long-term STN stimulation was correlated with results of the apomorphine test. The response to immediate intraoperative STN stimulation was accurately predicted by apomorphine challenge in all 13 IPD patients. Clinical outcome following long-term STN stimulation was correlated significantly with preoperative changes due to apomorphine measured with the UPDRS motor scores (r = 0.7125, P < 0.01) and FTT (r = 0.9276, P < 0.001). Moreover, comparison of long-term STN stimulation to preoperative drug treatment displayed a significant reduction in the duration of off-phases and a significant increase in the duration of on-phases. However, in the single patient with MSA no beneficial response was obtained either to apomorphine or to STN stimulation intraoperatively and during the postoperative externalized test period. Our results indicate that the apomorphine test can predict the outcome of immediate and long-term STN stimulation and may help in the selection of candidates for surgery.
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10/169. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in a parkinsonian patient with preoperative deficits in speech and cognition: persistent improvement in mobility but increased dependency: a case study.

    We report a patient with advanced Parkinson's disease, including severe and frequent off periods with freezing of gait, moderate dysphonia, and some cognitive impairment, who underwent bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. The patient was followed for 1 year after surgery, showing persistent good mobility without off periods and without freezing, which reverted completely when stopping the stimulation. There was deterioration of cognition as well as increased aphonia and drooling, all of which remained when the stimulation was turned off. The striking improvement in motor symptoms following STN stimulation was not paralleled by improvement in disability, probably as a result of a cognitive decline, suggesting a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease with dementia. We conclude that chronic STN stimulation is efficient in alleviating akinetic motor symptoms including gait freezing; this surgery should be offered before patients start to exhibit speech or cognitive disturbances.
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