Cases reported "Parkinson Disease"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/225. Parkinson's syndrome after closed head injury: a single case report.

    A 36 year old man, who sustained a skull fracture in 1984, was unconscious for 24 hours, and developed signs of Parkinson's syndrome 6 weeks after the injury. When assessed in 1995, neuroimaging disclosed a cerebral infarction due to trauma involving the left caudate and lenticular nucleus. Parkinson's syndrome was predominantly right sided, slowly progressive, and unresponsive to levodopa therapy. reaction time tests showed slowness of movement initiation and execution with both hands, particularly the right. Recording of movement related cortical potentials suggested bilateral deficits in movement preparation. Neuropsychological assessment disclosed no evidence of major deficits on tests assessing executive function or working memory, with the exception of selective impairments on the Stroop and on a test of self ordered random number sequences. There was evidence of abulia. The results are discussed in relation to previous literature on basal ganglia lesions and the effects of damage to different points of the frontostriatal circuits.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = action
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/225. essential tremor in Papua, New Guinea.

    The clinical features of 175 cases of essential tremor are related. This disorder is prevalent among a population of the Eastern Highlands of papua new guinea. It affects predominantly women in middle and old age; only 27 per cent of the cases were males. The disorder is slowly progressive and significant disability appears in elderly women when the trunk muscles are involved. Epidemiological studies have shown that the presence of tremor can be correlated with linguistic distinctions between high and low prevalence populations. Although only 30 patients reported a first degree relative with tremor, the syndrome would seem to stem from a genetic predisposition. In a number of patients essential tremor appeared to be associated with Parkinson's disease.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 116884.49214043
keywords = tremor
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/225. Diffuse lewy body disease presenting as multiple system atrophy.

    OBJECTIVES: The majority of patients with diffuse lewy body disease have cognitive or psychiatric manifestations as part of their initial presentation. A sizable minority present with parkinsonian features alone. Autonomic features may also occur, typically after the development of cognitive changes. We aim to demonstrate that diffuse lewy body disease may rarely also present with parkinsonism accompanied by marked autonomic dysfunction in the absence of significant cognitive or psychiatric abnormalities. methods: Case report based on a retrospective chart review and neuropathological examination. RESULTS: We report on a patient in whom a clinical diagnosis of multiple system atrophy was made based on a presentation of parkinsonism with prominent and early autonomic involvement. The former included postural tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia, while the latter consisted of repeated falls due to orthostasis and the subsequent development of urinary incontinence midway through the course of her illness. She was poorly tolerant of dopaminergic therapy due to accentuated orthostasis. Benefit from levodopa was limited and only evident when attempted withdrawal resulted in increased rigidity. There was no history of spontaneous or drug-induced hallucinations, delusions or fluctuating cognition, and in contrast to the prominence and progression of her parkinsonian and autonomic features over the first several years, cognitive impairment did not occur until the final stages of her illness, seven years after the onset of initial symptoms. Neuropathological examination revealed numerous lewy bodies in both neocortical as well as subcortical structures consistent with a diagnosis of diffuse lewy body disease. There was marked neuronal loss in the substantia nigra as well as the autonomic nuclei of the brainstem and spinal cord. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to cognitive, psychiatric, and parkinsonian presentations, diffuse lewy body disease may present with parkinsonism and prominent autonomic dysfunction, fulfilling proposed criteria for the striatonigral form of MSA.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 14610.561517554
keywords = tremor
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/225. Treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields improves olfactory function in Parkinson's disease.

    Olfactory dysfunction is a common symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). It may manifest in the early stages of the disease and infrequently may even antedate the onset of motor symptoms. The cause of olfactory dysfunction in PD remains unknown. Pathological changes characteristic of PD (i.e., lewy bodies) have been demonstrated in the olfactory bulb which contains a large population of dopaminergic neurons involved in olfactory information processing. Since dopaminergic drugs do not affect olfactory threshold in PD patients, it has been suggested that olfactory dysfunction in these patients is not dependent on dopamine deficiency. I present two fully medicated Parkinsonian patients with long standing history of olfactory dysfunction in whom recovery of smell occurred during therapeutic transcranial application of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla flux density. In both patients improvement of smell during administration of EMFs occurred in conjunction with recurrent episodes of yawning. The temporal association between recovery of smell and yawning behavior is remarkable since yawning is mediated by activation of a subpopulation of striatal and limbic postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors induced by increased synaptic dopamine release. A high density of dopamine D2 receptors is present in the olfactory bulb and tract. Degeneration of olfactory dopaminergic neurons may lead to upregulation (i.e., supersensitivity) of postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors. Presumably, small amounts of dopamine released into the synapses of the olfactory bulb during magnetic stimulation may cause activation of these supersensitive receptors resulting in enhanced sense of smell. Interestingly, in both patients enhancement of smell perception occurred only during administration of EMFs of 7 Hz frequency implying that the release of dopamine and activation of dopamine D2 receptors in the olfactory bulb was partly frequency dependent. In fact, weak magnetic fields have been found to cause interaction with biological systems only within narrow frequency ranges (i.e., frequency windows) and the existence of such frequency ranges has been explained on the basis of the cyclotron resonance model.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = action
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/225. Idiopathic parkinsonism with superimposed manganese exposure: utility of positron emission tomography.

    It is difficult to distinguish manganism from idiopathic parkinsonism by clinical signs only. Case history and examination: A 48-year-old welder for over 10 years complained of masked face, right side (arm and leg) resting tremor, and bradykinesia for over one year. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings showed symmetrical high signal intensities in the globus pallidus on T1 weighted image. These intensities disappeared almost completely six months after cessation of exposure. 18F-6-fluorodopa (18F-dopa) positron emission tomography (PET) findings showed reduced 18F-dopa uptake in the left putamen, findings which appear in idiopathic parkinsonism. A PET study is necessary to distinguish manganism from idiopathic parkinsonism, especially in a working environment with elevated Mn concentrations, such as welding.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 76256.054817983
keywords = resting tremor, tremor
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/225. Exogenous levodopa is not toxic to elderly subjects with non-parkinsonian movement disorders: further clinical evidence.

    We report three women between 80 and 87 years of age who had longstanding essential tremor. Due to an erroneous diagnosis of Parkinsonism they had received levodopa preparations for 13, 16 and 25 years, respectively, with cumulative levodopa equivalent doses of 18.0, 9.0, and 4.1 kg. The patients showed neither dyskinesias nor signs of Parkinsonism. These observations do not support a detrimental role of chronic levodopa exposure in elderly individuals with essential tremor.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 29221.123035109
keywords = tremor
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/225. Function of the cerebellum in Parkinsonian rest tremor and Holmes' tremor.

    We describe a patient who developed Parkinson's disease (PD) 17 years after resection of his right cerebellum because of a Lindau tumor. He showed a classic 4.3-Hz resting tremor on the left side but a 3.1-Hz resting, postural, and intention tremor on the right side compatible with midbrain tremor (Holmes' tremor). We conclude that the generator of the tremor in PD cannot be located within the olivocerebellar loop. The cerebellum, however, seems to modulate the tremor frequency of parkinsonian rest tremor and may prevent the rest tremor from transforming into a postural and goal-directed tremor.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 310025.03909885
keywords = resting tremor, tremor
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/225. Treatment of Parkinson hypophonia with percutaneous collagen augmentation.

    OBJECTIVES: It has been estimated that more than 70% of patients with parkinson disease experience voice and speech disorders characterized by weak and breathy phonation, and dysarthria. This study reports on the efficacy of treating Parkinson patients who have glottal insufficiency. STUDY DESIGN AND methods: Thirty-five patients underwent collagen augmentation of the vocal folds for hypophonia associated with parkinson disease, using a new technique of percutaneous injection with fiberoptic guidance. Patient response to the collagen augmentation was determined by telephone survey. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The procedure required minimal patient participation and was safely performed on all the patients who were studied. Results of the survey indicated that 75% of patient responses demonstrated satisfaction with the technique, compared with 16% of patient ratings reflecting dissatisfaction. These results were moderately correlated with the duration of improvement of the dysphonia. Results of this preliminary evaluation demonstrate that voice deficits in parkinson disease are amenable to vocal fold augmentation. Because this procedure requires minimal patient participation and can be safely performed in an office setting, it may also be useful in other severely debilitating neuromotor diseases that result in glottal insufficiency and hypophonia.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = action
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/225. Chronic subdural haematomas and Parkinsonian syndromes.

    We describe three men with parkinsonian syndromes caused or aggravated by chronic subdural haematomas. A 63-year-old man developed tremor at rest, rigidity and bradykinesia one week after he fell and hit his head. A 70-year-old patient suffering from tardive dyskinesia and drug-induced parkinsonism experienced deterioration of his bradykinetic symptoms over two weeks. There was no history of trauma. The third patient, a 82-year-old man with idiopathic Parkinson's disease had a marked increase of his left-sided parkinsonian symptoms. Again, there was no history of trauma. In all three patients chronic subdural haematomas were demonstrated by computed tomography. Evacuation of the chronic subdural haematoma resulted in disappearance respectively improvement of the movement disorder. Diagnostic evaluations appear to be delayed and initial misinterpretations are frequent. The findings of our report and review of the literature point out that a favourable outcome after appropriate surgical treatment is achieved in most instances.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 14610.561517554
keywords = tremor
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/225. AC pulsed electromagnetic fields-induced sexual arousal and penile erections in Parkinson's disease.

    Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) since brain dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of sexual behavior. Activation of dopamine D2 receptor sites, with resultant release of oxytocin from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, induces sexual arousal and erectile responses in experimental animals and humans. In Parkinsonian patients subcutaneous administration of apomorphine, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, induces sexual arousal and penile erections. It has been suggested that the therapeutic efficacy of transcranial administration of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla flux density in PD involves the activation of dopamine D2 receptor sites which are the principal site of action of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy in PD. Here, 1 report 2 elderly male PD patients who experienced sexual dysfunction which was recalcitrant to treatment with anti Parkinsonian agents including selegiline, levodopa and tolcapone. However, brief transcranial administrations of AC pulsed EMFs in the picotesla flux density induced in these patients sexual arousal and spontaneous nocturnal erections. These findings support the notion that central activation of dopamine D2 receptor sites is associated with the therapeutic efficacy of AC pulsed EMFs in PD. In addition, since the right hemisphere is dominant for sexual activity, partly because of a dopaminergic bias of this hemisphere, these findings suggest that right hemispheric activation in response to administration of AC pulsed EMFs was associated in these patient with improved sexual functions.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = action
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Parkinson Disease'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.