Cases reported "Parkinsonian Disorders"

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1/52. Adult Chediak-Higashi parkinsonian syndrome with dystonia.

    chediak-higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by immune deficiency, partial oculocutaneous albinism, and large eosinophilic, peroxidase-positive inclusion bodies in granule-containing cells. The adult form of CHS manifests during late childhood to early adulthood and is marked by various neurologic sequelae, including parkinsonism, dementia, spinocerebellar degeneration, and peripheral neuropathy. We report the case of a 29-year-old man with adult CHS who exhibited a progressive asymmetric parkinsonism, including rest tremor, and axial, cervical, and appendicular dystonia. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of characteristic large peroxidase-positive granules within leukocytes and markedly decreased natural killer cell function. levodopa/carbidopa and amantadine provided benefit for tremor. CHS, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young adult parkinsonism.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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2/52. Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease and juvenile parkinsonism.

    Juvenile parkinsonism (onset age <20 yrs) is uncommon and few cases with neuropathologic confirmation have been reported. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with asymmetric arm tremor and bulbar symptoms. His paternal great aunt had parkinsonism with onset at age 22 years. Examination revealed parkinsonism in the absence of additional neurologic signs except for delayed pupillary responses to light. He responded well to levodopa but developed motor fluctuations and disabling dyskinesias after 3 years of treatment. Following attempted withdrawal of levodopa at age 24 years, he developed severe aspiration pneumonia complicated by cardiorepiratory arrests and he died 6 months later. At autopsy, the dominant histologic feature was wide-spread neuronal hyaline intranuclear inclusions. Neuronal depletion was observed in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, and, to a lesser extent, in the frontal cortex, and inclusions were particularly prominent in these areas. Inclusions were immunoreactive for ubiquitin and were typical of those seen in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID), a rare, multisytem neurodegenerative disease. NIID should be considered in the differential diagnosis of juvenile parkinsonism. A link between NIID and hereditary neurodegenerative disorders characterized by expanded polyglutamine tracts is supported by the similar appearance of intranuclear inclusions in both conditions and by a family history in some cases of NIID.
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ranking = 0.036675642445611
keywords = dyskinesia
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3/52. Juvenile parkinsonism: a heterogeneous entity.

    We studied the clinical features, laboratory investigation, management and natural history of a cohort of patients with Juvenile Parkinsonism (JP), seen at a tertiary referral centre. JP was defined as Parkinsonism with onset at age 20 years or less. Six patients (five male, one female) entered the study. The mean age at onset of Parkinsonism was 12.5 years (range 7-19) and the mean follow-up time was 49.3 months (range 40-57). Bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability were observed in all patients and five subjects had tremor. dystonia was present in four subjects. Other clinical features were dementia (five subjects), supranuclear ophthalmoparesis (five subjects), seizures (three subjects), multifocal myoclonus (one subject), decreased deep reflexes (one subject), pyramidal signs (one subject). family history of Parkinson's disease (PD) was positive in one subject. work-up for Wilson's disease was negative in all patients. neuroimaging studies showed cortical atrophy in two subjects and mild brainstem atrophy in two others. Sea-blue histiocytes were found in one subject. L-dopa improved the Parkinsonism in all subjects but four rapidly developed fluctuations and dyskinesias, requiring, in one, stereotaxic surgery. After a mean disease duration of 6.5 years, five subjects require assistance for performance of all daily activities. JP is a heterogeneous clinical entity. In the majority of patients, no underlying cause is identified. The unusual clinical features suggest most subjects have a CNS degenerative disease distinct from PD. There is, however, evidence suggesting that PD may rarely cause JP. Gangliosidosis is another cause of L-dopa-responsive JP. Regardless of the cause, in the present study JP displays an aggressive and rapidly progressive course in most patients.
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ranking = 0.036675642445611
keywords = dyskinesia
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4/52. Parkinsonism and neck extensor myopathy: a new syndrome or coincidental findings?

    BACKGROUND: Dropped head in parkinsonism has been attributed to dystonia or unbalanced muscle rigidity. To our knowledge, isolated neck extensor myopathy with parkinsonism has been described in only one patient. OBJECTIVES: To assess the occurrence of neck extension weakness resulting in dropped head in patients with parkinsonism and to explore whether the head drop might be the consequence of neck extensor myopathy. patients AND methods: All patients who were evaluated because of parkinsonism in the Department of neurology in our hospital between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 1999, and were found to have both parkinsonism and neck extension weakness resulting in head drop were studied. The patients underwent clinical examination, blood tests including the levels of creatine kinase and myoglobin and neurophysiological evaluation with needle electromyography and autonomic tests. Open biopsy on a neck muscle was performed in the patients who could cooperate. RESULTS: Of 459 patients evaluated because of parkinsonism, 7 were found to have neck extensor weakness resulting in head drop. Needle electromyography revealed myopathic changes in all 7 patients. Muscle biopsy, which was performed in 5 patients, disclosed myopathic changes in all 5 patients. Electron microscopy revealed mitochondrial abnormalities in 2 of these 7 patients. Three of the patients had concomitant neck rigidity that could contribute to the neck position. All 7 patients had autonomic dysfunction and 6 responded poorly to levodopa therapy, making a diagnosis of multiple system atrophy probable. CONCLUSION: Parkinsonism may be associated with isolated neck extensor myopathy resulting in dropped head, and this condition should be suggestive of multiple system atrophy.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = dystonia
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5/52. Familial parkinsonism with synuclein pathology: clinical and PET studies of A30P mutation carriers.

    BACKGROUND: The authors identified the second known mutation in the alpha-synuclein(SNCA) gene, an alanine-to-proline exchange in amino acid position 30 (A30P), that cosegregates with the disease in one German family with autosomal dominantly inherited parkinsonism (ADP). The authors studied carriers of the A30P mutation to compare the phenotype of this mutation with idiopathic PD (IPD) and to assess nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in symptomatic and preclinical mutation carriers. methods: The pedigree of the A30P family spans five generations with five affected individuals. The authors performed detailed neurologic examinations followed by mutation analysis in 11 living individuals. In three mutation carriers, two individuals with definite PD and one person at risk for PD, they used L-[18]F-fluoro-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (F-DOPA), [11]C-raclopride (RAC), and [18]F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET to investigate presynaptic dopaminergic function, dopamine D2 receptors, and cerebral energy metabolism. The authors studied the cognitive functions of carriers of the A30P mutation using neuropsychological screening. RESULTS: PET studies revealed striatal presynaptic dopaminergic alterations consistent with sporadic IPD in two affected family members and no evidence for nigrostriatal dopaminergic dysfunction in one presymptomatic mutation carrier. Neuropsychological testing in four mutation carriers provided evidence for cognitive impairment as a frequent and early symptom of the A30P mutation; this is also supported by regional cerebral energy metabolism alterations in the clinically presymptomatic subject. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotype of the A30P mutation in the SNCA gene is similar to that of sporadic IPD, including a high variability of the age at disease onset, ranging from 54 to 76 years. The follow-up of presymptomatic carriers of the A30P mutation may give insight into preclinical disease stages and early manifestations of PD.
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ranking = 0.0040844675604599
keywords = idiopathic
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6/52. Phenotypic characterisation of autosomal recessive PARK6-linked parkinsonism in three unrelated Italian families.

    The clinical features of nine patients (three women and six men) affected by PARK6-linked parkinsonism, belonging to three unrelated Italian families, are reported. The occurrence of affected men and women within one generation suggested an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance in all three families. Mean age at disease onset was 36 /- 4.6 years; all cases except one presented with asymmetrical signs, consisting of tremor and akinesia of one upper limb or unilateral short step gait. Affected individuals had a mean age of 57 /- 8.5 years, and average disease duration was 21 /- 7.8 years. Parkinsonian features included benign course, early onset of drug-induced dyskinesias, and a good and persistent response to levodopa. There were no other associated features (i.e., pyramidal or cerebellar signs, dysautonomia, or diurnal fluctuations unrelated to drug treatment). cognition was unaffected. The clinical picture was remarkably similar in all patients; no relevant family-related differences were found. PARK6 disease is a new form of early-onset parkinsonism without other atypical clinical features.
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ranking = 0.036675642445611
keywords = dyskinesia
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7/52. X-linked dystonia ("Lubag") presenting predominantly with parkinsonism: a more benign phenotype?

    "Lubag," or Filipino X-linked dystonia, typically presents with either pure dystonia (that inexorably becomes generalized) or combined dystonia-parkinsonism. We report on three cases of Lubag presenting with isolated parkinsonism without dystonia or late-onset dystonia and a slower course.
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ranking = 1.8
keywords = dystonia
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8/52. Parkin mutations in a patient with hemiparkinsonism-hemiatrophy: a clinical-genetic and PET study.

    The authors describe a 37-year-old woman with early-onset hemiparkinsonism (HP) and ipsilateral body hemiatrophy (HA). Genetic analysis revealed a missense mutation (Arg275Trp) and a duplication of exon 7 of parkin. The complementary metabolic and receptor pattern of PET ligands corresponded to that typically found in idiopathic PD, although tracer binding asymmetry was lacking. Parkin mutations should be considered in HPHA, particularly when there is a younger age at onset and dystonia is an early sign.
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ranking = 0.20408446756046
keywords = dystonia, idiopathic
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9/52. Neuropathology of two members of a German-American kindred (family C) with late onset parkinsonism.

    We present genealogical and longitudinal clinical observations and autopsy findings of a previously reported kindred, family C (German-American), with late-onset autosomal dominant parkinsonism with evidence for linkage on chromosome 2p13. The clinical phenotype includes the cardinal features of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In addition, postural tremor and dementia are detected in some individuals. Two members of the kindred, one affected and one unaffected have recently come to autopsy. The unaffected family member was an 82-year-old woman whose brain showed only mild age-related pathology and no evidence of subclinical lewy body disease. In contrast, the affected family member was an 83-year-old man whose brain had neuronal loss, gliosis and lewy bodies in the substantia nigra and other monoaminergic brain stem nuclei, as well as the basal forebrain and amygdala. lewy bodies and Lewy neurites had a distribution typical of cases of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Thus, the clinical and pathological findings in this family with autosomal dominant parkinsonism are similar to those of sporadic Parkinson's disease.
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ranking = 0.0081689351209198
keywords = idiopathic
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10/52. tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency: clinical manifestations of catecholamine insufficiency in infancy.

    Inborn errors of catecholamine biosynthesis are rare but of great interest as they are genetic disorders, and in some, treatment may completely reverse severe neurological abnormalities. They also provide insights into the action of the biogenic amines in the developing brain. We describe the clinical course of an infant with tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH) deficiency over a 30-month period. The parents are consanguineous, and genetic analysis revealed the infant to be homozygous for the common G698A mutation in the TOH gene. TOH deficiency can be seen as a model of pure catecholamine deficiency. Experimental evidence, reports of other disorders of biogenic amines, and our experience with this infant suggest that the symptoms of catecholamine deficiency in infancy can be broadly subdivided. Signs of dopamine deficiency include tremor, hypersensitivity to levadopa (L-dopa) therapy, oculogyric crises, akinesia, rigidity, and dystonia. Manifestations of norepinephrine deficiency include ptosis, miosis, profuse oropharyngeal secretions, and postural hypotension. hypersensitivity to L-dopa was a particular management problem in this infant.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = dystonia
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