Cases reported "Parkinsonian Disorders"

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1/15. Parkinsonism, dementia and vertical gaze palsy in a Guamanian with atypical neuroglial degeneration.

    A 58-year-old Chamorro female patient, who died in 1993, was examined clinicopathologically. At the age of 51, she suffered from hemiparkinsonism, then bradykinesia, rigidity without tremor, and dementia. Extrapyramidal symptoms developed, and at the age of 57, vertical gaze palsy was noted. The clinical diagnosis was parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) with vertical gaze palsy. The brain showed atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes, and the atrophy was accentuated in the dentate gyrus, Ammon's horn and parahippocampal gyrus. The basal ganglia, thalamus and midbrain were moderately atrophic. The substantia nigra and locus ceruleus were completely depigmented. Numerous neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were seen in the subiculum and amygdaloid nucleus. Many NFTs were evident in the parahippocampal gyrus, lateral occipitotemporal gyrus, insula, Sommer sector, basal nucleus of meynert, lateral nucleus of the thalamus, subthalamic nucleus and brain stem, and several were observed in the globus pallidus and hypothalamus. The Sommer sector, substantia nigra, locus ceruleus and basal nucleus of meynert showed severe loss of neurons, and a moderate loss of neurons was exhibited by the globus pallidus. These findings were apparently consistent with those associated with PDC. However, in this patient, severe neuronal loss was seen in the subthalamic nucleus and lateral nucleus of the thalamus, and grumose degeneration, which has not previously been reported in PDC, was seen in the dentate nucleus. In addition, many tufted astrocytes, which have been reported to occur in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and postencephalitic parkinsonism, but scarcely observed in PDC, were present. Furthermore, astrocytic plaques, which have been considered as a specific finding of corticobasal degeneration (CBD), were observed in the cerebral cortex. On the other hand, granular hazy astrocytic inclusions, previously reported to occur in PDC, were not seen. Chromatolytic neurons were not observed. The question thus arises as to whether it is appropriate to consider this patient as having suffered from a combination of PDC, PSP and CBD. From the view points of absence of granular hazy astrocytic inclusions and chromatolytic neurons, and of tufted astrocytes in the neostriatum, it is conceivable that this patient is a case of a new disease entity.
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ranking = 1
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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2/15. Juvenile parkinsonism: a heterogeneous entity.

    We studied the clinical features, laboratory investigation, management and natural history of a cohort of patients with Juvenile Parkinsonism (JP), seen at a tertiary referral centre. JP was defined as Parkinsonism with onset at age 20 years or less. Six patients (five male, one female) entered the study. The mean age at onset of Parkinsonism was 12.5 years (range 7-19) and the mean follow-up time was 49.3 months (range 40-57). Bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability were observed in all patients and five subjects had tremor. dystonia was present in four subjects. Other clinical features were dementia (five subjects), supranuclear ophthalmoparesis (five subjects), seizures (three subjects), multifocal myoclonus (one subject), decreased deep reflexes (one subject), pyramidal signs (one subject). family history of Parkinson's disease (PD) was positive in one subject. work-up for Wilson's disease was negative in all patients. neuroimaging studies showed cortical atrophy in two subjects and mild brainstem atrophy in two others. Sea-blue histiocytes were found in one subject. L-dopa improved the Parkinsonism in all subjects but four rapidly developed fluctuations and dyskinesias, requiring, in one, stereotaxic surgery. After a mean disease duration of 6.5 years, five subjects require assistance for performance of all daily activities. JP is a heterogeneous clinical entity. In the majority of patients, no underlying cause is identified. The unusual clinical features suggest most subjects have a CNS degenerative disease distinct from PD. There is, however, evidence suggesting that PD may rarely cause JP. Gangliosidosis is another cause of L-dopa-responsive JP. Regardless of the cause, in the present study JP displays an aggressive and rapidly progressive course in most patients.
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ranking = 0.42643659189105
keywords = supranuclear
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3/15. Corticobasal syndrome with tau pathology.

    Six cases with a clinical corticobasal syndrome (progressive asymmetric apraxia and parkinsonism unresponsive to levodopa) and tau pathology were selected from 97 brain donors with parkinsonism. Postmortem volumetric measures of regional brain atrophy (compared with age/sex-matched controls) were correlated with clinical features and the degree of underlying cortical and subcortical histopathology. At death, no significant asymmetry of pathology was detected. All cases had prominent bilateral atrophy of the precentral gyrus (reduced by 22-54%) with other cortical regions variably affected. Subcortical atrophy was less severe and variable. Two cases demonstrated widespread atrophy of basal ganglia structures (44-60% atrophy of the internal globus pallidus) and substantial subcortical pathology consistent with a diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The remaining four cases had typical pathology of corticobasal degeneration. In all cases, neuronal loss and gliosis corresponded with subcortical atrophy, while the density of cortical swollen neurons correlated with cortical volume loss. Atrophy of the internal globus pallidus was associated with postural instability, while widespread basal ganglia histopathology was found in cases with gaze palsy. This study confirms the involvement of the precentral gyrus in the corticobasal syndrome and highlights the variable underlying pathology in these patients.
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ranking = 0.99966811012642
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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4/15. Botulinum toxin treatment for hyperlacrimation secondary to aberrant regenerated seventh nerve palsy or salivary gland transplantation.

    AIM: To investigate the potential of botulinum toxin A for treating hyperlacrimation. methods: Three patients with unilateral symptoms of hyperlacrimation (diagnosed as "crocodile tearing") and one patient with a submandibular salivary gland transplant (SMGT) were studied. Tear production was quantified in the resting and stimulated (chewing or following exercise) state, using Schirmer's test and tear clearance. Lacrimal scintigraphy was used to assess outflow. Intraglandular injections (for patients with "crocodile tears") or periglandular injections (for the SMGT patient) of Dysport were administered in divided doses. RESULTS: Two of the three eyes with reported gustatory lacrimation had a higher Schirmer test result than their fellow eye following gustatory stimulation. Scintigraphy, with and without stimulation, confirmed a patent drainage system in these patients. The other patient demonstrated a functional obstruction to tear flow. After treatment patients with confirmed gustatory lacrimation and the SMGT patient had a marked reduction in tearing at 2 weeks. This effect lasted 3-4 months. There was no demonstrable improvement in the patient with epiphora secondary to functional obstruction. Two patients who had received intraglandular injections developed a ptosis, which resolved spontaneously. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates that gustatory lacrimation is a difficult diagnosis. In post-facial nerve palsy a functional element must always be considered. However, in confirmed hyperlacrimation botulinum toxin treatment is effective but side effects may occur.
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ranking = 0.00033188987358443
keywords = palsy
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5/15. Familial diffuse lewy body disease, eye movement abnormalities, and distribution of pathology.

    BACKGROUND: Familial diffuse lewy body disease (DLBD) is rare and not yet associated with a defect in the synuclein gene. In the differential diagnosis of the parkinsonian syndromes, defects in vertical gaze tend to be identified with progressive supranuclear palsy. False-positive diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy can occur, and defects in vertical gaze have been reported in DLBD, although so far a pure vertical gaze palsy associated with pathological abnormalities in the substrate for vertical gaze has not been described. OBJECTIVES: To report the clinical and pathological findings in 2 siblings with DLBD, and to relate the distribution of the pathological abnormalities in the brainstem to centers for vertical gaze. MATERIALS: For several years, 2 Irish siblings experienced a progressive parkinsonism-dementia complex associated in one with a defect in vertical gaze and in both with visual hallucinations. RESULTS: In both patients, results of pathological examination revealed (1) Lewy bodies positive for ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein together with cell loss and gliosis in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, and neocortex; and (2) similar findings in the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the posterior commissure, and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (substrates for vertical gaze). CONCLUSIONS: Familial DLBD (not shown to be genetically as distinct from environmentally transmitted) has been shown to exist in an Irish family. Caution should be enjoined in the interpretation of defects in vertical gaze in the differential diagnosis of the parkinsonian syndromes.
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ranking = 1.9992698422781
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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6/15. Guadeloupean parkinsonism: a cluster of progressive supranuclear palsy-like tauopathy.

    An unusually high frequency of atypical Parkinson syndrome has been delineated over the last 5 years in the French west indies. Postural instability with early falls, prominent frontal lobe dysfunction and pseudo-bulbar palsy were common and three-quarters of the patients were L-dopa unresponsive. One-third of all patients seen had probable progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). This new focus of atypical parkinsonism is reminiscent of the one described in guam and may be linked to exposure to tropical plants containing mitochondrial complex I inhibitors (quinolines, acetogenins, rotenoids). Two hundred and twenty consecutive patients with Parkinson's syndrome seen by the neurology service at Pointe a Pitre, guadeloupe University Hospital were studied. Currently accepted operational clinical criteria for Parkinson's syndromes were applied. The pathological findings of three patients who came to autopsy are reported. Fifty-eight patients had probable PSP, 96 had undetermined parkinsonism and 50 had Parkinson's disease, 15 had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with parkinsonism and one had probable multiple system atrophy. All three PSP patients in whom post-mortem study was performed had early postural instability, gaze palsy and parkinsonian symptoms, followed by a frontolimbic dementia and corticobulbar signs. Neuropathological examination showed an accumulation of tau proteins, predominating in the midbrain. There was an exceptionally large accumulation of neuropil threads in Case 1. Biochemical studies detected a major doublet of pathological tau at 64 and 69 kDa in brain tissue homogenates. All cases were homozygous for the H1 tau haplotype, but no mutation of the tau gene was observed. Clinical, neuropathological and biochemical features were compatible with the diagnosis of PSP, although some unusual pathological features were noted in Case 1. A cluster of cases presenting with atypical parkinsonism is reported. Guadeloupean parkinsonism may prove to be a tauopathy identical or closely related to PSP.
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ranking = 4.9981414167079
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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7/15. Botulinum toxin treatment in atypical parkinsonian disorders associated with disabling focal dystonia.

    We investigated the efficacy of botulinum toxin A (BtxA) therapy in patients with atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD) exhibiting different types of disabling focal dystonia unresponsive to oral drug therapy. Eight patients with functionally disabling focal dystonia out of a series of 60 consecutive patients with APDs regularly treated at our outpatient movement disorders clinic were included. patients were diagnosed according to established criteria and had disabling limb dystonia (n=4) or craniocervical dystonia (n=4) unresponsive to oral pharmacological treatment. Localization and dose of BtxA injections was determined individually based on clinical examination as well as EMG in patients with limb dystonia. BtxA reduced dystonic symptoms in all patients; only one developed a transient local side-effect. BtxA was particularly effective in the long-term treatment (up to 50 months) of blepharospasm associated with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). BtxA also alleviated PSP-associated retrocollis and orofacial dystonia with lower lip retraction associated with PSP and multiple system atrophy. BtxA treatment of limb dystonia in corticobasal degeneration (CBD) temporarily improved hand and arm function in early-disease stages while treatment in advanced stages reduced pain, facilitated hygiene and prevented secondary contractures. Limb dystonia was also alleviated by BtxA therapy in one patient with neuronal multisystem degeneration of undetermined cause. The results suggest that BtxA therapy may represent an effective means of alleviating disabling focal dystonia in different APDs. Particularly in early stage APD with disabling limb dystonia local BtxA injections may result in functional improvement.
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ranking = 0.9996017321517
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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8/15. Swelling of the intratemporal facial nerve in Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    Although Ramsay Hunt syndrome is one of the most important diseases causing peripheral facial palsy, the detailed pathology of the disease in the intratemporal facial nerve remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to increase knowledge of the pathogenesis of the syndrome by means of surgical findings. Between April 1976 and March 1997 we performed subtotal decompression of the facial nerve in 74 patients with severe Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The grade of nerve swelling was assessed using a microscope and recorded in a standardized form. The relationships between nerve swelling, the timing of surgery and the swelling of each segment were analyzed. Pronounced neural swelling, involving the geniculate ganglion and the horizontal segment, was consistent finding in the acute phase. Although the incidence of pronounced swelling of the horizontal segment gradually declined with time after onset, in most cases nerve swelling persisted even beyond the 16th week after onset. These data suggest that diffuse viral neuritis occurs throughout the intratemporal facial nerve. We assume that the viral inflammatory swelling involving the geniculate ganglion and horizontal segment is mostly responsible for the acute facial palsy in the acute phase.
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ranking = 0.00013275594943377
keywords = palsy
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9/15. Anderson-fabry disease with cerebrovascular complications in two Italian families.

    We describe four patients with cerebrovascular complications from two unrelated Italian families with Anderson-fabry disease. Clinical examination, neuroimaging (MRI), biochemical and genetic analyses were carried out in all the patients. alpha-galactosidase A activity was detected by fluorimetric assay and genetic analysis was performed by dna sequencing. family 1. A male patient presented recurrent strokes when he was 34 years old, albuminuria and subsequently progressive renal failure to renal transplantation. family 2. A male patient, aged 32 years, had diplopia for a few days and then recurrent strokes with left spastic hemiparesis and internuclear ophthalmoplegia. A female patient, aged 48 years, presented L-dopa-responsive parkinsonism, and her sister had stroke when she was 55 years old. MRI was abnormal in all the patients and showed lacunar infarctions in the periventricular white matter, basal ganglia and pons. Lesions were detected by MRI even before stroke in a female patients. In patients with Anderson-fabry disease, stroke is a frequent complication, and may be the first threatening clinical manifestation. In young people with undefined stroke, even without signs of renal involvement, it is important to consider the diagnosis of Anderson-fabry disease and so to perform clinical examination and biochemical analyses. The pre-clinical stage of cerebrovascular involvement may be evaluable by MRI.
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ranking = 0.025750942850989
keywords = ophthalmoplegia
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10/15. An imaging study of parkinsonism among African-Caribbean and Indian london communities.

    We previously reported on 131 parkinsonian patients of African-Caribbean and Indian origin attending movement disorders clinics in six london hospitals, of whom approximately 20% manifested atypical parkinsonism with a late-onset, akinetic-rigid predominant syndrome, postural instability and minimal resting tremor refractory to levodopa therapy and dopamine agonists (see Hu et al., neurology 2000;54[Suppl.3]: A188 and Hu et al., Mov Disord 2000;15[Suppl.3]:S212). To better elucidate the phenotype of these atypical patients (18)FDG/(18)F-dopa positron emission tomography (PET) were performed in a subgroup to look for cortical and striatal metabolic changes suggestive of multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), or dementia with lewy bodies. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rating of cerebral vascular lesion load, putaminal atrophy, and neuropsychological testing were also performed. Discriminant function analysis of (18)F-dopa/(18)FDG striatal metabolism in 43 patients failed to separate atypical ethnic minority from typical Caucasian Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Additionally, atypical Indian and African-Caribbean patients did not show cortical reductions in glucose metabolism suggestive of PSP, CBD, or DLB. Cerebral vascular lesion load rated in these patients did not differ between atypical and typical PD groups, and none of the atypical patients had MRI changes suggestive of MSA or PSP. Our results suggest the atypical parkinsonian phenotype seen in African-Caribbean and Indian patients represents a levodopa-refractory form of PD separate from MSA or PSP in most patients.
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ranking = 0.9996017321517
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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