Cases reported "Parkinsonian Disorders"

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1/54. The dropped head sign in parkinsonism.

    We describe seven patients who exhibited the dropped head sign in parkinsonism. These included six females and one male between the ages of 53 and 74. Three patients were clinically diagnosed as probable Parkinson's disease and four were diagnosed with probable multiple system atrophy. None had weakness in the posterior neck muscles or spasms in the anterior neck muscles. When the patients attempted to extend the head voluntarily or passively muscle contraction that was not seen in the dropped-head condition appeared. Surface electromyography of the neck indicated that the anterior neck muscles had rigidity. A gamma-block of the SCM muscles reduced the muscle activity when the head was elevated and improved the dropped-head condition slightly. These findings seem to indicate that the dropped head sign in parkinsonism could be associated with anterior neck muscle rigidity. Although the severity of the dropped head condition was affected by medication or by the clinical course in three patients, there was no clear relationship between the severity of the dropped head condition and the parkinsonism. We suspected that unbalanced muscle rigidity between the anterior and the posterior neck muscles could cause the dropped head sign.
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2/54. Parkinsonism due to predominant involvement of substantia nigra in Japanese encephalitis.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical correlates of lesions seen predominantly in the substantia nigra in some patients with Japanese encephalitis (JE). BACKGROUND: JE typically involves thalamus, brainstem, spinal cord, and cerebral cortex. Rarely, basal ganglia and cerebellum may be affected. Lesions are often widespread and discrete. Predominant involvement of substantia nigra in JE has not been previously reported. methods: Of 52 patients with JE seen in an endemic zone, five were selected on the basis of isolated lesions in the substantia nigra on MRI; all were subjected to detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation. RESULTS: Presenting symptoms were fever, alteration of consciousness, neck stiffness, and decreased body movements. Examination during acute illness revealed restricted eye movements, opsoclonus, upbeating nystagmus, and cogwheel rigidity. There was early and complete recovery of consciousness and eye signs. Parkinsonian features such as positive glabellar tap sign, masklike face, bradykinesia, tremors, and postural instability became apparent as these patients started walking. Reversible mutism was observed in three patients during the acute phase. Response to levodopa, amantadine, and trihexiphenedyl was partial. Three patients were followed for more than 1 year, during which time their parkinsonian features recovered completely. Substantial recovery was also observed in the two other patients 2 months after regaining consciousness. CONCLUSIONS: Some patients with Japanese encephalitis may have lesions predominantly in the substantia nigra. After recovery from acute encephalitic illness, they manifest clinically with typical parkinsonian features. Although several viruses are known to cause parkinsonism, this is the first demonstration of a virus producing lesions predominantly in the substantia nigra and causing parkinsonism.
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3/54. Progressive myoclonic epilepsies syndrome (Ramsay Hunt syndrome) with mental disorder: report of two cases.

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is a rare condition within the progressive myoclonic epilepsies syndrome (PME), with a triad of action myoclonus, grand mal seizure and severe cerebellar ataxia. There are few reports about the psychiatric disturbances associated with PME or RHS. The present study examines the evidence that RHS may accompany an organic mental syndrome, ethanol's effective suppression of myoclonus, and the possible resultant problem of alcohol dependence in RHS patients. Two brothers with the previous long-standing diagnosis of RHS and their mental symptoms of persecutory delusion and depression are reported, as well as the additional problem of alcohol dependence in one of them. The cerebellar dysfunction found in RHS may be associated with an underlying organic condition. Determination of the relationship between cerebellar dysfunction and psychosis in RHS will require further study. Although the mechanism of the suppression of myoclonus by alcohol remains unclear, patients should be allowed to drink socially, and alcohol consumption should not be totally prohibited. However, effective treatment of the problems of alcohol tolerance, abuse, or dependence requires the cooperation of both neurologists and psychiatrists.
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4/54. Postural and action myoclonus in patients with parkinsonian type multiple system atrophy.

    patients with a parkinsonian syndrome and features of multisystem atrophy (pMSA) may exhibit abnormal movements of the hands and fingers, which are reported in the literature either as "jerky" tremor or myoclonus. We studied clinically and electrophysiologically these movements in 11 consecutive patients with pMSA. No abnormal movements were observed when the patients were at complete rest, except for a characteristic parkinsonian "pill-rolling" tremor in one patient. Abnormal small-amplitude, nonrhythmic movements involving just one or a few fingers, or more rarely the whole hand, were observed in nine patients when holding a posture or at the beginning of an action. Accelerometric recordings showed small-amplitude irregular oscillations which, contrary to those of patients with tremor, had no predominant peak in the Fast Fourier frequency spectrum analysis. Electromyographic recordings in the forearm and hand muscles showed brief jerks of less than 100 ms duration which were synchronous in antagonist muscles of the forearm and alternated with brief periods of silence. Electrical stimulation of the digital nerves evoked consistent reflex responses in the wrist flexor and extensor muscles at a latency of 55.3 /-4.1 ms (range, 50-63 ms). Routine electroencephalographic (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation were normal. back-averaging of the EEG activity time-locked to the jerks was performed in two patients with no evidence of abnormal cortical activity. Two patients had episodes of transient respiratory failure related to pneumonia. This caused a long-lasting enhancement of the abnormal hand and finger movements, which became larger and more widespread, with features of posthypoxic myoclonus. We conclude that the abnormal hand and finger movements of patients with pMSA are a form of postural and action myoclonus, and can be described as mini-polymyoclonus.
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keywords = tremor, action
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5/54. Parkinsonism, dementia and vertical gaze palsy in a Guamanian with atypical neuroglial degeneration.

    A 58-year-old Chamorro female patient, who died in 1993, was examined clinicopathologically. At the age of 51, she suffered from hemiparkinsonism, then bradykinesia, rigidity without tremor, and dementia. Extrapyramidal symptoms developed, and at the age of 57, vertical gaze palsy was noted. The clinical diagnosis was parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) with vertical gaze palsy. The brain showed atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes, and the atrophy was accentuated in the dentate gyrus, Ammon's horn and parahippocampal gyrus. The basal ganglia, thalamus and midbrain were moderately atrophic. The substantia nigra and locus ceruleus were completely depigmented. Numerous neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were seen in the subiculum and amygdaloid nucleus. Many NFTs were evident in the parahippocampal gyrus, lateral occipitotemporal gyrus, insula, Sommer sector, basal nucleus of meynert, lateral nucleus of the thalamus, subthalamic nucleus and brain stem, and several were observed in the globus pallidus and hypothalamus. The Sommer sector, substantia nigra, locus ceruleus and basal nucleus of meynert showed severe loss of neurons, and a moderate loss of neurons was exhibited by the globus pallidus. These findings were apparently consistent with those associated with PDC. However, in this patient, severe neuronal loss was seen in the subthalamic nucleus and lateral nucleus of the thalamus, and grumose degeneration, which has not previously been reported in PDC, was seen in the dentate nucleus. In addition, many tufted astrocytes, which have been reported to occur in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and postencephalitic parkinsonism, but scarcely observed in PDC, were present. Furthermore, astrocytic plaques, which have been considered as a specific finding of corticobasal degeneration (CBD), were observed in the cerebral cortex. On the other hand, granular hazy astrocytic inclusions, previously reported to occur in PDC, were not seen. Chromatolytic neurons were not observed. The question thus arises as to whether it is appropriate to consider this patient as having suffered from a combination of PDC, PSP and CBD. From the view points of absence of granular hazy astrocytic inclusions and chromatolytic neurons, and of tufted astrocytes in the neostriatum, it is conceivable that this patient is a case of a new disease entity.
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keywords = tremor
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6/54. Parkinsonism after correction of hyponatremia with radiological central pontine myelinolysis and changes in the basal ganglia.

    Parkinsonism has been rarely described following central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis. We report a case of parkinsonism developing following rapid correction of hyponatremia with radiological evidence of central pontine myelinolysis and changes in the basal ganglia. A 56-year-old man developed drooling and bilateral hand tremors 3 weeks after correction of hyponatremia from 103 to 125 mmol/L over 14 h. He had a prominent 6 Hz resting tremor which worsened with action and mild cogwheel rigidity. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed changes consistent with central pontine myelinolysis and increased signal on T1-weighted images in the putamen bilaterally. His tremor responded well to L-dopa therapy. There have been several other cases of parkinsonism developing after central pontine/extrapontine myelinolysis. Increased signal in the basal ganglia on T1-weighted images has been described in another case of central pontine myelinolysis imaged about the same time after sodium correction as our case.
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ranking = 122375.04515944
keywords = resting tremor, tremor, action
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7/54. Adult Chediak-Higashi parkinsonian syndrome with dystonia.

    chediak-higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by immune deficiency, partial oculocutaneous albinism, and large eosinophilic, peroxidase-positive inclusion bodies in granule-containing cells. The adult form of CHS manifests during late childhood to early adulthood and is marked by various neurologic sequelae, including parkinsonism, dementia, spinocerebellar degeneration, and peripheral neuropathy. We report the case of a 29-year-old man with adult CHS who exhibited a progressive asymmetric parkinsonism, including rest tremor, and axial, cervical, and appendicular dystonia. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of characteristic large peroxidase-positive granules within leukocytes and markedly decreased natural killer cell function. levodopa/carbidopa and amantadine provided benefit for tremor. CHS, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young adult parkinsonism.
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ranking = 15020.703790745
keywords = tremor
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8/54. Parkinsonism as unusual neurological complication in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Parkinsonism complicating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is extremely rare. We report two girls with SLE who developed extrapyramidal parkinsonian features after an initial stormy course. One patient presented with generalized tonic clonic seizure and was then noted to have akinetic mutism and masked face. MRI brain revealed abnormal signals in bilateral basal ganglia and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed hypoperfusion in the same area. EEG background was slow and disorganized. Symptoms persisted despite high dose intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was prescribed empirically and was followed by complete recovery. Both EEG and MRI brain were normal on follow-up. The second patient was found unconscious and then developed bradykinesia, mutism and shuffling gait. MRI and SPECT both detected abnormalities in basal ganglia. EEG was slow. Intravenous immunoglobulin was given after methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. This was followed by clinical improvement. The pathogenesis of basal ganglia injury in SLE, along with the management of cerebral lupus and the mechanisms of action of IVIG, are discussed.
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9/54. Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease and juvenile parkinsonism.

    Juvenile parkinsonism (onset age <20 yrs) is uncommon and few cases with neuropathologic confirmation have been reported. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with asymmetric arm tremor and bulbar symptoms. His paternal great aunt had parkinsonism with onset at age 22 years. Examination revealed parkinsonism in the absence of additional neurologic signs except for delayed pupillary responses to light. He responded well to levodopa but developed motor fluctuations and disabling dyskinesias after 3 years of treatment. Following attempted withdrawal of levodopa at age 24 years, he developed severe aspiration pneumonia complicated by cardiorepiratory arrests and he died 6 months later. At autopsy, the dominant histologic feature was wide-spread neuronal hyaline intranuclear inclusions. Neuronal depletion was observed in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, and, to a lesser extent, in the frontal cortex, and inclusions were particularly prominent in these areas. Inclusions were immunoreactive for ubiquitin and were typical of those seen in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID), a rare, multisytem neurodegenerative disease. NIID should be considered in the differential diagnosis of juvenile parkinsonism. A link between NIID and hereditary neurodegenerative disorders characterized by expanded polyglutamine tracts is supported by the similar appearance of intranuclear inclusions in both conditions and by a family history in some cases of NIID.
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keywords = tremor
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10/54. Juvenile parkinsonism: a heterogeneous entity.

    We studied the clinical features, laboratory investigation, management and natural history of a cohort of patients with Juvenile Parkinsonism (JP), seen at a tertiary referral centre. JP was defined as Parkinsonism with onset at age 20 years or less. Six patients (five male, one female) entered the study. The mean age at onset of Parkinsonism was 12.5 years (range 7-19) and the mean follow-up time was 49.3 months (range 40-57). Bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability were observed in all patients and five subjects had tremor. dystonia was present in four subjects. Other clinical features were dementia (five subjects), supranuclear ophthalmoparesis (five subjects), seizures (three subjects), multifocal myoclonus (one subject), decreased deep reflexes (one subject), pyramidal signs (one subject). family history of Parkinson's disease (PD) was positive in one subject. work-up for Wilson's disease was negative in all patients. neuroimaging studies showed cortical atrophy in two subjects and mild brainstem atrophy in two others. Sea-blue histiocytes were found in one subject. L-dopa improved the Parkinsonism in all subjects but four rapidly developed fluctuations and dyskinesias, requiring, in one, stereotaxic surgery. After a mean disease duration of 6.5 years, five subjects require assistance for performance of all daily activities. JP is a heterogeneous clinical entity. In the majority of patients, no underlying cause is identified. The unusual clinical features suggest most subjects have a CNS degenerative disease distinct from PD. There is, however, evidence suggesting that PD may rarely cause JP. Gangliosidosis is another cause of L-dopa-responsive JP. Regardless of the cause, in the present study JP displays an aggressive and rapidly progressive course in most patients.
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keywords = tremor
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