Cases reported "Parvoviridae Infections"

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1/309. Transient hypoplastic anemia caused by primary human parvovirus B19 infection in a previously untreated patient with hemophilia transfused with a plasma-derived, monoclonal antibody-purified factor viii concentrate.

    BACKGROUND: Modern plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates are produced using various virus-inactivation protocols and are assumed to be safer than they were previously with regard to the risk for transmitting viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis b, and hepatitis c. The risks from viruses that are relatively resistant to the current inactivation procedures remain uncertain. PATIENT: A 7-year-old with mild hemophilia a who had not been previously infused with any blood products was treated with a plasma-derived, monoclonal antibody-purified factor viii concentrate to cover orthopedic surgery after traumatic fracture of his left arm. RESULTS: A typical primary human parvovirus (HPV)-B19 infection was observed associated with transient hypoplastic anemia. retrospective studies including serologic examination and polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that the HPV-B19 infection was transmitted by the factor viii concentrate. CONCLUSIONS: Clotting factor concentrates for the treatment of hemophilia retain a risk for HPV-B19 contamination. HPV-B19 viral infection might induce hypoplastic anemia in these patients, particularly during enhanced hemopoiesis after acute blood loss. ( info)

2/309. Human parvovirus B19 infection in organ transplant recipients.

    We report a 61-yr-old kidney transplant recipient with human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection presenting as a severe pancytopenia 1 month after transplantation. Bone marrow aspiration revealed severe erythroid hypoplasia with giant and dystrophic proerythroblasts. bone marrow cells were positive for HPV B19 dna detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). pancytopenia resolved shortly after administration of intravenous immunoglobulins. Nineteen cases of HPV B19 infection in organ transplant recipients have been so far reported in the literature. Immunocompromised patients should be considered at risk from developing symptomatic HPV B19 infections. In such patients, specific anti-HPV B19 IgM and IgG antibodies may be absent or transient and therefore their negativity cannot rule out the diagnosis of HPV B19 infestation. Bone marrow smear morphological findings may suggest the diagnosis but testing for viral dna by PCR is mandatory. patients may spontaneously recover. However, since specific anti-viral therapy is not currently available, intravenous immunoglobulin administration appears to be the more efficacious treatment. ( info)

3/309. Severe aplastic anemia associated with human parvovirus B19 infection in a patient without underlying disease.

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19 virus) infection is known to induce aplastic crisis in patients with hemolytic anemia. In healthy subjects, B19 infection may sometimes cause mild pancytopenia, but these changes are transient and recovery is spontaneous. We report the first case of aplastic anemia in a previously healthy boy without any underlying diseases, following asymptomatic infection with the B19 virus. Laboratory examination initially showed thrombocytopenia, mild leukopenia in the peripheral blood, and severe hypoplastic bone marrow. Since pancytopenia developed and worsened progressively, immunosuppressive therapy was given, resulting in a complete remission. Despite the lack of an infectious prodrome, serological and histological analysis revealed an underlying infection with the B19 virus. Thus, B19 virus infection must be considered one of the causes of aplastic anemia in patients without underlying hemolytic anemia and an apparent episode of the viral infection. ( info)

4/309. Sickle cell-like crisis and bone marrow necrosis associated with parvovirus B19 infection and heterozygosity for haemoglobins S and E.

    In the literature, heterozygosity for haemoglobins S and E is known as a clinically benign condition. Nevertheless, we present a case of double heterozygosity manifesting as an infarctive sickle cell-like crisis with acute chest syndrome and reversible bone marrow necrosis. Importantly, these complications were associated with serologically documented parvovirus B19 infection. Reviewing the literature, this case emphasizes a specific role of parvovirus B19 as a precipitating cause. Furthermore, it demonstrates how important the consideration of haemoglobin disorders can be even outside of the historically known areas. ( info)

5/309. Henoch-Schonlein syndrome associated with human parvovirus B19 primary infection.

    We report a case of Henoch-Schonlein syndrome associated with human parvovirus B19 primary infection. The patient, a 27-year-old Filipino woman, presented with an erythemato-papular-purpuric eruption localized to the lower limbs. General symptoms and signs included fever, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, inguinal lymphadenopathy and polyarthralgia. Laboratory examinations showed leukocytosis, increase in total serum IgA, proteinuria and haematuria. Circulating IgA immune complexes were also present. The ELISA test for anti-human parvovirus B19 IgM was positive. Histopathological examination revealed a leukocytoclastic vasculitis. This case confirms that also in adult patients, Henoch-Schonlein syndrome may be associated with human parvovirus B19 infection. ( info)

6/309. parvovirus B19 infection associated with myocarditis following adult cardiac transplantation.

    A 56-year-old woman underwent an uneventful cardiac transplantation due to dilated cardiomyopathy. One week later the patient developed clinical and histological signs of myocarditis. We report for the first time a case of myocarditis in an adult heart transplant recipient, possibly induced by parvovirus B19, as evidenced by the finding of specific IgM in serum and specific dna in the myocardial cells. Furthermore, this is the first time parvovirus B19 dna has been observed in the myocardium of an adult. In conclusion, parvovirus B19 should be recognized as a potential pathogen causing myocarditis in heart transplant recipients. In order to establish a definite and rapid diagnosis, a search for specific IgM should be supplemented with PCR investigations of serum and myocardial biopsies when available. ( info)

7/309. Severe nonimmune hydrops fetalis and congenital corneal opacification secondary to human parvovirus B19 infection. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: In parvovirus infections in animals, congenital anomalies are seen, but the teratogenic potential in humans seems fairly low. CASE: A fetus with hydrops, ascites and pleural effusion was seen at a prenatal ultrasound examination. Fetal cordocentesis was performed, and fetal blood was positive for parvovirus antibodies. Intravascular fetal blood transfusion was given at 21 and 23 weeks of gestation. At 39 weeks labor started spontaneously, and a 2,960-g, female infant was delivered. The newborn had bilateral opacification of the cornea. CONCLUSION: In this case a combination of fetal parvovirus B19 infection and congenital corneal opacification was seen. This case also demonstrates that blood transfusions in hydropic fetuses may reverse the hydrops and prevent intrauterine death. ( info)

8/309. parvovirus infection mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus in a pediatric population.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the striking similarities of presentation in a pediatric population between human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) infection and systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). methods: medical records of seven patients (ages 6 to 15) with HPV-B19 infection were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Six of seven cases presented with a history of malar rash, and all seven had prolonged arthralgias and fatigue. Six of seven had a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) titer ranging from 1:40 to greater than 1:640, with two patients having antibodies to Scl-70 and others to Sm, RNP, SS-A (Ro), or SS-B (La). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) varied from 2 to 68 mm/h. Two patients presented with elevated rheumatoid factor (RF) titers of 24 and 271 IU/mL, respectively. All had elevated IgM antibody levels to parvovirus at the onset, and markedly elevated IgG levels when evaluated throughout their disease course. Over the course of 2 to 3 months, three improved, but the other four continued to have symptomatology for 14, 40, 78, and 120 weeks, respectively. Treatment was symptomatic, and no one developed classic SLE. CONCLUSIONS: HPV-B19 infection in a pediatric patient group may present with SLE-like symptomatology and positive serology suggestive of SLE. The course of the disease is usually self-limited, though it may be prolonged in some for up to 120 weeks. ( info)

9/309. Human parvovirus B19 infection: its relationship with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OBJECTIVES: The clinical presentation and outcome of four cases of human parvovirus-B19 (HPV-B19) infection, initially diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), were reviewed and compared with similar cases previously reported in the literature. The relationship between HPV-B19 infection and SLE is discussed. methods: The medical records of four patients with documented HPV-B19 infection, initially diagnosed as SLE, were reviewed and studied in detail. A medline search from 1985 to 1997 was performed to identify other cases reported in the literature in which a relationship between HPV-B19 and SLE had been identified in both adults and children. RESULTS: In all of our cases, the clinical findings (fever, rash, arthritis and malaise) and hematologic data (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, presence of autoantibodies, hypocomplementemia, etc.) had initially suggested a diagnosis of juvenile SLE. Subsequently, evidence of HPV-B19 infection at the time of clinical presentation was ascertained. In three of these cases, the disease course was self-limiting with complete clinical remission and normalization of hematologic abnormalities within 18 months; one case, however, had persistent disease activity and repeated exacerbations. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of HPV-B19 infection has been documented in patients with SLE, in particular in relation to disease onset. Similarities in clinical and immunological features of viral infections and SLE at presentation may hinder the differential diagnosis between these two conditions. The family history, a self-limiting disease course and certain disease specific clinical aspects may help the pediatrician formulate an accurate diagnosis. In our patients, HPV-B19 infection may have mimicked the onset of SLE in three cases, but triggered the disease in one. ( info)

10/309. Clinical and laboratory findings in immunocompetent patients with persistent parvovirus B19 dna in bone marrow.

    The clinical relevance of parvovirus B19 dna persistence in bone marrow was examined in 10 immunocompetent individuals undergoing examinations for unexplained fever, arthralgia or chronic leukopenia. Common causes of these symptoms had been ruled out and bone marrow aspiration was indicated at this stage of investigation. In addition to morphological analysis of the bone marrow, a test for B19 dna was performed with 2 nested PCRs. Five of these 10 selected patients had detectable B19 dna in their bone marrow, whereas no viraemia was observed. Additional bone marrow samples were collected at least 6 months after the first sample from the B19 dna-positive patients, of whom 3 were found to be still positive. Indeed, 2 of the patients have been positive for more than 5 y of follow-up. Sera from all patients with persistent B19 dna in bone marrow could neutralize the virus. One patient responded to treatment with immunoglobulin but later relapsed. No other cause of the symptoms was found, despite extensive investigations, and at least some of the prolonged disease manifestations may be due to parvovirus B19. ( info)
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