Cases reported "Pemphigus"

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1/25. esophagitis dissecans superficialis associated with pemphigus vulgaris.

    The extension of bullous lesions in pemphigus to the esophagus is relatively uncommon, especially in patients who appear to be in clinical remission. Very rarely, pemphigus vulgaris may affect the entire esophagus, resulting in complete sloughing of the mucous membrane. A 20-year-old man with pemphigus vulgaris presented to the emergency room with acute onset of dysphagia, odynophagia, and hemoptysis. There were no cutaneous or oral findings of pemphigus on presentation, since he was being maintained on corticosteroids and azathioprine with excellent results. During initial evaluation in the emergency room, the patient was observed to vomit a cast of the mucosal lining of the esophagus. The morphologic description of such an esophageal cast is termed esophagitis dissecans superficialis. This is the third case of esophagitis dissecans superficialis in pemphigus vulgaris recorded in the medical literature.
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2/25. A localized variant of paraneoplastic pemphigus: acantholysis associated with malignant melanoma.

    We report a 72-year-old male patient with a nodular malignant melanoma that was associated with focal suprabasal acantholysis (FSA). This phenomenon, which is regarded as an incidental finding by dermatopathologists, may be associated with inflammatory and also neoplastic skin diseases. Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections from an erythematous plaque surrounding the patient's tumour showed FSA, direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on normal human skin, monkey oesophagus and rat urinary bladder were negative. On electron microscopy few desmosomes could be detected in the basal cell layer of the acantholytic areas and there was a nearly complete loss of these structures in the spinous cell layer. Only remnants of cytoplasmic plaques and keratin filaments could be observed in those areas. In contrast, adherens junctions appeared to be well preserved. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant fusion proteins as antigens did not show circulating autoantibodies against desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) or desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). In contrast, immunoblotting revealed autoantibodies directed against keratinocyte antigens with a molecular weight of 85 kDa and 250 kDa, the first band corresponding to the molecular weight of comigrating plakoglobin. immunoprecipitation with patient serum also revealed a 85-kDa band. We conclude that these autoantibodies, probably in conjunction with cofactors produced by the tumour, could play a part in the pathogenesis of this variant of FSA, for which we propose the term 'localized paraneoplastic pemphigus.'
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3/25. Development of oesophageal involvement in a subject with pemphigus vulgaris: a case report and review of the literature.

    We present the case of a 50-year-old-man with pemphigus vulgaris involving the oropharyngolaryngeal mucosa and oesophagus. Oesophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris is relatively uncommon, especially in subjects in clinical remission, and has been rarely described in the literature. Endoscopic examination should be performed to avoid inappropriate therapy due to misdiagnosis of steroid-induced oesophagitis and peptic ulcers.
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4/25. A nonfatal case and 2 fatal cases of paraneoplastic pemphigus: can a complement indirect immunofluorescent test help to identify fatal "group A" paraneoplastic pemphigus cases?

    We studied 3 recent cases of paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) in detail. Two patients died despite concerted management efforts. One patient received no treatment after the appearance of PNP and recovered completely from both PNP and lymphoma. Multiple serum studies of these 3 patients plus 9 other proven PNP cases revealed that 8 of 9 fatal PNP cases (referred to here as "group A") had distinctive cell surface antibodies detected by complement indirect immunofluorescent (CIIF) tests on monkey esophagus sections. By contrast, none of the sera from 3 patients with PNP who experienced long-term survival (referred to here as "group B") and none of 20 pemphigus vulgaris or 10 pemphigus foliaceus control sera revealed similar beaded cell surface CIIF reaction patterns, a difference that is statistically significant (P <.0001). Cell surface CIIF reaction patterns of group A PNP antibodies resemble the pattern of pemphigus antibody reactions in indirect immunofluorescent tests on the same substrate; however, the latter tend to be thinner and more linear, whereas the cell surface CIIF pattern tends to be more beaded, suggesting possible desmosomal reactions. We believe this test is useful in identifying an aggressive group A form of PNP.
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5/25. Paraneoplastic pemphigus in association with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is an autoimmune mucocutaneous blistering disease associated with neoplasms, most frequently of the lymphoproliferative type. Rare PNP cases related to nonhematological solid tumors have been reported. The patient in this report presented with severe mucocutaneous involvement of PNP associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Histopathology showed vacuolar interface dermatitis with keratinocyte necrosis and intraepidermal acantholysis. Direct immunofluorescence exhibited deposition of intercellular IgG and complement and granular complement at the dermoepidermal junction. Indirect immunofluorescence testing showed a typical intercellular staining on monkey esophagus and rat bladder epithelium. immunoprecipitation showed characteristic target antigens of 250, 210, and 190 kDa molecular weights. This patient met all diagnostic criteria for paraneoplastic pemphigus and is, to our knowledge, the first report of a case associated with hepatocellular carcinoma.
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6/25. Paraneoplastic pemphigus secondary to fludarabine evolving into unusual oral pemphigus vegetans.

    We report a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who developed paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) soon after the initiation of fludarabine therapy. He presented with severe oral and cutaneous erosions. Initially, he had high titres of circulating autoantibodies as detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) on multiple epithelial substrates (normal human skin, monkey oesophagus, and rat bladder) and by desmoglein 1 and 3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). His oral erosions have subsequently progressed into unusual hyperplastic papillomatous lesions affecting the inner aspect of lips and buccal mucosae, histologically consistent with pemphigus vegetans. desmoglein 1 antibodies and IF on rat bladder substrate have become negative after 18 months of therapy. Several agents had been initiated to bring the disease under control originally, but a partial remission was achieved and maintained with mycophenolate mofetil and low-dose prednisolone.
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7/25. Esophageal pemphigus vulgaris with carcinoma: postoperative steroid therapy based on pemphigus-related antibodies.

    A 71-year-old man had been treated as an outpatient for pemphigus vulgaris. Endoscopic examination disclosed an ulcerated lesion in the middle of the esophagus. A biopsy specimen was diagnosed pathologically as squamous cell carcinoma. At surgery, the esophageal mucosa beyond the resection margin appeared edematous and blistered. We carried out anastomosis with sutures rather than staples at the site where the epithelium was least damaged, to minimize likelihood of anastomotic breakdown from poor blood flow. Histopathologic examination of the resected specimen additionally showed blisters and acantholytic cells throughout the esophageal mucosa, so esophageal pemphigus was diagnosed in addition to carcinoma. The patient's general condition deteriorated from worsening of pemphigus. We initiated steroid therapy, making adjustments according to changes in titers of anti-intercellular bridge antibody and antibodies to the cell adhesion molecules (desmoglein 1 and 3). fever and extensive blistering subsided dramatically, and the patient was discharged in good condition on hospital day 103. When performing esophagectomy in the presence of esophageal pemphigus, the anastomosis must be fashioned cautiously because any mechanical stress can abrade the friable edematous esophageal mucosa. While steroid therapy is known to be effective for pemphigus vulgaris, our findings indicate that in patients with postoperative deterioration of their general condition, marked improvement can be obtained by using antibody titers to guide timing and dose in steroid administration.
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8/25. IgA pemphigus foliaceus with a clinical presentation of pemphigus herpetiformis.

    A patient with clinical features of herpetiform pemphigus of the foliaceus type had histologic findings consistent with pemphigus. Intercellular IgA deposits in a pattern like that of IgG in pemphigus were present. Circulating pemphigus-type IgA-class antibodies reacted first only with guinea pig and later in the disease also with monkey esophagus sections. IgG-class pemphigus antibodies were blocked by the IgA-class antibodies of this patient. In addition, the IgA-class pemphigus antibodies in this patient were blocked by the IgG-class pemphigus antibodies in tests on guinea pig and monkey esophagus. This indicates that the IgA-class antibodies in this patient were directed either to the same antigen as the IgG-class pemphigus foliaceus antibodies or to one that is close enough to it to give steric hindrance. The skin lesions responded poorly to systemic corticosteroid therapy. dapsone therapy initially produced dramatic improvement, but the condition flared to the point that plasmapheresis, in addition to high doses of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, had to be used to control it.
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9/25. Involvement of the esophagus in a patient with pemphigus vulgaris who was on immunosuppressive therapy.

    Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) had been considered an exceptional event. We present the case of a woman with PV who developed esophageal involvement while being treated with azathioprine and resolved after steroid therapy. This case highlights that esophageal involvement of PV might be resistant to immunosuppressive therapy other than steroids.
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10/25. Paraneoplastic pemphigus resembling linear iga bullous dermatosis.

    A 69-year-old Chinese man presented in 2001 with a blistering eruption over the upper and lower limbs associated with oral ulceration for 1 month. He had stage IIIA follicular small cell cleaved non-Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosed 5 years previously, and had received several lines of palliative chemotherapy, including two courses of chlorambucil, six cycles of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP), and two four-cycle courses of rituximab, with disease stabilization at the time of presentation. Examination revealed erythematous, annular plaques with raised, urticarial borders studded with tense bullae and vesicles over the thighs. Some lesions were arciform and annular, with vesicles arranged in a ring at the border (Fig. 1). There was involvement of the feet with desquamation at the tips of the toes (Fig. 2). Severe erosions with hemorrhagic crusts on the lips, tongue, and buccal mucosa were seen. herpes simplex virus serology was negative. A biopsy specimen from a vesicle on the left thigh showed suprabasal acantholysis (Fig. 3), some apoptotic keratinocytes (Fig. 4), satellite cell necrosis in the epidermis, and a superficial perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes and eosinophils. Direct immunofluorescence showed intercellular immunoglobulin g (IgG) and C3 within the epidermis and along the basement membrane zone. Indirect immunofluorescence on monkey esophagus was positive for anti-intercellular antibody at a titre of 1/160 and positive on rat bladder at a titre of 1/80. A presumptive diagnosis of paraneoplastic pemphigus was made. This was later confirmed by the presence of antibodies against envoplakin (210 kDa), periplakin (190 kDa), and desmoglein 1 on immunoprecipitation studies. He was started on prednisolone 60 mg/day (1 mg/kg/day), with complete resolution of skin lesions within 1 week, but persistence of oral ulcers. cyclophosphamide was added at a low dose of 1 mg/kg/day as he had baseline leukopenia. cyclosporine was later added to a maximum of 4 mg/kg/day with only mild improvement of the oral lesions. He declined rituximab therapy. He died 2 months later from fulminant pneumonia.
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