Cases reported "Pericardial Effusion"

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1/15. Angiosarcoma causing cardiac rupture.

    We report the 7th known case in the literature of cardiac angiosarcoma resulting in cardiac rupture. A 34-year-old woman was admitted presenting chest pain and pericardial effusion. After the patient had been treated for 3 months under the diagnosis of pericarditis of unknown etiology, she became hypotensive. Doppler echocardiography showed increased pericardial effusion and a communication between the right atrium and the pericardial cavity. An emergency operation was undertaken to drain the effusion and explore the etiology. We found the ruptured right atrium and the irregularly shaped tumor extending from the pericardium near the inferior caval vein to the right ventricle. There was no apparent tumor on the right atrium, but its wall was extensively thin, which we replaced with autologous pericardium. The patient died on the 44th postoperative day. Clinical diagnosis of cardiac angiosarcoma is usually very difficult. If Doppler echocardiography demonstrates pericardial effusion and find a ruptured right atrium with or without mass formation, we should suspect cardiac angiosarcoma.
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2/15. Hepatic hydatid cyst rupturing into sub-diaphragmatic space and pericardial cavity.

    A ten-year-old male child presented with a large hepatic hydatid cyst which ruptured into the sub-diaphragmatic space and pericardial cavity, giving rise to a pericardial effusion. This communication between the hydatid cyst and the pericardium was documented on computerised tomographic scan of the chest and abdomen. The cyst was aspirated carefully and then enucleated. There was an associated right-sided reactionary pleural effusion. The pericardial effusion and pleural effusion resolved on albendazole therapy and did not require surgical intervention.
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3/15. Reversed portal vein pulsatility on Doppler ultrasound secondary to an iatrogenic mediastinal haematoma.

    The Doppler ultrasound pattern of reversed pulsatile flow (RPF) of the portal vein (PV) is strongly associated with high atrial pressure. Tricuspid regurgitation is considered to be the main cause of RPF in patients with chronic heart disease, but the precise pathomechanism of this PV flow pattern has not yet been resolved. We describe for the first time a RPF of the PV in a young patient with a mediastinal haematoma after inadvertent puncture of the subclavian artery. In this patient, transcutaneous echocardiography demonstrated normal valves without any tricuspid regurgitation as well as normal diameters of the cardiac cavities. The RPF of the PV in this patient resolved spontaneously within 7 days. An increased hepatic outflow resistance with transmission of hepatic artery pulsations across arterioportal communications seems the most likely pathomechanism to explain our finding.
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4/15. Hepatic hydropericardium.

    A 41-year-old man with chronic hepatitis c and cirrhosis presented with pericardial effusion and tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis. Nine liters of pericardial fluid was drained with complete resolution of his ascites. He represented with recurrent pericardial effusions despite salt restriction and diuretic therapy. Subsequent radionuclide scans demonstrated a direct connection between the peritoneal and pericardial spaces. A pericardial window was formed but despite this there was recurrence of pericardial effusion and pleural effusion. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation 7 months later and no recurrence of pleural or pericardial effusion was observed following transplantation. We believe this is the first case report of pericardial effusion secondary to cirrhotic ascites and a communication between the peritoneal and pericardial cavities.
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5/15. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium: report of two cases.

    Primary chylopericardium is an extremely rare disease. This report presents two cases of this disease, in a 47-year-old man and 21 -year-old woman. Both cases were given diagnosis of primary chylopericardium by chylous pericardial fluid examination and lymphangio-scintigraphy which demonstrated abnormal communication between the left thoracic duct and the pericardial cavity.
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6/15. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium associated with cervicomediastinal cystic hygroma.

    Chylopericardium is a rare clinical entity in which chylous fluid accumulates in the pericardial cavity. We report a case of primary idiopathic chylopericardium associated with multiple, small cervicomediastinal cystic hygromas occurring in an asymptomatic 43-year-old woman with no history of trauma, thoracic surgery, malignancy, infection or tuberculosis. echocardiography showed a large amount of pericardial effusions and pericardial fluid analysis revealed inappropriately elevated triglyceride. We did not demonstrate communication between the thoracic duct and the pericardial sac by lymphangiography and chest computed tomography. She successfully responded to 30 days of continuous pericardial drainage and 15 days of a medium-chain triglyceride diet after 30 days of total parenteral nutrition. Follow-up echocardiography 6 months after treatment commencement showed a minimal reaccumulation of pericardial fluid without symptom. We conclude that if a patient is asymptomatic and can well tolerate daily life, surgery including pericardiectomy or ligation of the thoracic duct is not necessarily required.
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7/15. Successful surgical treatment of rupture of coronary arteriovenous fistula with unconsciousness after chest and back pain.

    A 65 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital, because of unconsciousness after chest and back pain. echocardiography showed pericardial effusion. She suffered from pre-shock due to cardiac tamponade. Although a cause of cardiac tamponade was unclear, we performed emergency surgical treatment without coronary angiography. In operation, we found a rupture of coronary arteriovenous fistula and repaired it. The patient recovered from the surgery uneventfully. Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber or major vessel. It is the most common congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries. Many patients with these anomalies remain asymptomatic, but some patients develop symptoms of congestive heart failure, infective endocarditis, myocardial ischemia, arrhythmia, or rupture of an aneurismal fistula. Usually, the dilatation of fistula is common, and although 19% of this may become aneurysmal, the rupture of the aneurysm is very rare. We report a case of ruptured coronary arteriovenous fistula who underwent successful emergent surgery.
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8/15. magnetic resonance imaging of a coronary fistula manifesting as a pericardial effusion.

    A case of a congenital fistulous communication between the left circumflex coronary artery and coronary sinus that presented as a pericardial effusion and was diagnosed using a comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation is presented. This is an unusual presentation of an uncommon condition, and the MRI features have not been described previously. Noninvasive cardiac assessment via MRI allows for identification of the anatomic basis and functional consequences of an unusual anomaly such as a coronary artery fistula.
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9/15. Idiopathic chylopericardium: an unusual cause of cardiac tamponade.

    Chylous pericardial effusion is an uncommon condition, and the treatment is difficult. We report a case of massive chylous pericardial effusion with tamponade in a 22-year-old man, managed successfully. lymphoscintigraphy confirmed the communication between the lymphatic trunk and the pericardial space, which was surgically ligated. There are relatively few published reports of idiopathic chylopericardium, and its pathogenesis remains unknown. The most effective treatment is surgical ligation of the thoracic duct and creation of a pericardial window.
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10/15. A case of isolated primary chylopericardium.

    Primary chylopericardium presented as radiographic cardiomegaly in an asymptomatic 19-year-old man. Normal findings at cardiac catheterisation and angiographic demonstration of cardiac displacement from the diaphragm suggested a collection of fluid below the heart which was confirmed by M and B mode ultrasound scanning. Thoracic blood pool isotope scanning indicated that the lumen was a pericardial effusion rather than a cyst. Lymphangiography did not indicate any direct lymphatic communication though a small pool of contrast appeared in the pericardium and the diagnosis of chylopericardium was confirmed by pericardiocentesis. Surgical treatment was undertaken after rapid reaccumulation of chyle and the patient remains well 6 months later.
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