Cases reported "Pericardial Effusion"

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1/91. Left ventricular apical diastolic collapse: an unusual echocardiographic marker of postoperative cardiac tamponade.

    A 37-year-old woman was evaluated for signs and symptoms of cardiac tamponade 11 days after mitral valve replacement and tricuspid valve repair. The transthoracic echocardiogram showed a large, compartmentalized pericardial effusion that resulted in left ventricular apical diastolic collapse. Also noted were right ventricular posterior wall diastolic collapse and hemodynamic findings consistent with cardiac tamponade. This case highlights the atypical echocardiographic findings in patients with pericardial effusions after cardiac surgery.
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2/91. Isolated primary chylopericardium.

    A 16-year-old man was found to have an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Primary chylopericardium was diagnosed when pericardiocentesis yielded the characteristic milky-white fluid. The thoracic duct was easily identified by giving milk and butter and an injection of ethylene blue immediately before the operation. Intraoperative thoracic ductography showed no abnormal findings. Mass ligation of the thoracic duct above the diaphragm and partial pericardiectomy were successfully performed through a right thoracotomy approach. In addition, many of the lymphatics were ligated above the diaphragm. The right thoracotomy approach was a useful method for resection and ligation of the thoracic duct just above the diaphragm. Follow-up showed no accumulation of pericardial fluid or pleural effusion.
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3/91. Pericardial tamponade: an unusual complication of lobectomy for lung cancer.

    A rare case of pericardial tamponade developed in a 69-year-old man after a right upper lobectomy for lung cancer. This unusual complication presented in the early postoperative period and was associated with what we believed to be an aberrant right bronchial artery coming off the intrapericardial portion of the aorta. This vessel retracted into the pericardial sac where it bled causing a pericardial tamponade.
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4/91. Primary cardiac angiosarcoma with right coronary artery-to-pericardial fistula--a case report.

    Primary cardiac sarcoma is a rare tumor that is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Hemopericardium and coronary artery fistula are rare complications of primary cardiac sarcoma. The authors report a case of primary cardiac angiosarcoma presenting with hemopericardium, secondary to right coronary artery-to-pericardial fistula, with a review of the literature.
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5/91. Constrictive pericarditis following hemopericardium due to ascending aortic dissection: A case report.

    A 79-year-old woman, who had had no history of trauma, tuberculosis, or collagen diseases, was referred for examination of general fatigue and shortness of breath on exertion. physical examination revealed engorged neck veins, hepatomegaly, and ascites with abdominal distention. On chest x-ray the cardiac shadow was slightly enlarged and bilateral pleural effusion was present. An electrocardiogram showed low voltage of the QRS complex. Computed tomographic scans revealed two lumens in the remarkably dilated ascending aorta and the severely thickened pericardium. cardiac catheterization showed elevated right atrial pressure and elevated right and left ventricular end-diastolic pressures, in addition to a pressure record of early diastolic dip and end-systolic plateau in the right ventricle. aortography demonstrated aortic dissection localized to the ascending aorta. On the basis of these findings, the diagnosis of chronic ascending aortic dissection complicated with constrictive pericarditis was made. After subtotal pericardiectomy, graft replacement of the ascending aorta and proximal aortic arch was performed with successful results. Her postoperative recovery was uneventful. Histological studies of the pericardium showed fibrosis and marked infiltration of the inflammatory cells. No findings of specific pericarditis such as tuberculosis or collagen diseases were detected.
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6/91. Primary cardiac angiosarcoma associated with cardiac tamponade: case report.

    A 57-year-old male with primary cardiac angiosarcoma was initially admitted for cardiac tamponade. pericardiocentesis was performed twice preoperatively, but the bloody pericardial fluid was cytologically negative for malignant cells. The tumor in the right atrium was resected during cardiopulmonary bypass. The resected tumor was 5.5x4.5x3.0cm in size and the diagnosis of cardiac angiosarcoma was made histologically. There were no tumor cells in the surgical margin. Unfortunately the patient died 3.5 months after surgery due to multiple recurrence in the pericardium. A suitable therapy for cardiac angiosarcoma is still controversial, but early antemortem diagnosis and more aggressive combined treatment should be considered.
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7/91. Emergency repair of incidentally diagnosed ascending aortic aneurysm immediately after caesarean section.

    A 36-yr-old pregnant woman with a history of hypertension presented at term for elective Caesarean section because of breech position. At preoperative examination, a diastolic murmur was found and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) revealed a large, 8.1-cm diameter ascending aortic aneurysm with severe aortic regurgitation and moderate pericardial effusion. Surgical repair was not considered to be urgently required. The patient was delivered electively by Caesarean section under epidural anaesthesia using invasive arterial pressure monitoring. TOE performed 6 h post-partum showed progressing pericardial effusion, for which emergency replacement of the aortic valve and ascending aorta were indicated. The epidural catheter was removed 4 h before starting the cardiopulmonary bypass procedure. arterial pressure was controlled by a titrated infusion of esmolol and clonidine. To improve uterine tone, the patient received an i.v. infusion of oxytocin throughout surgery. After implantation of an aortic composite graft and weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Awake and receptive to neurological evaluation, her trachea was extubated 4 h after surgery. Mother and baby made an uneventful recovery.
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8/91. ascites and pleural and pericardial effusion after operative laparoscopy.

    Rare cases of massive ascites associated with pelvic endometriosis have been reported. Our patient developed ascites several days after laparoscopy, probably as an infective complication.
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9/91. Purulent pericarditis due to group B streptococcus and mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta: case report.

    A 61-year-old female, with a history of uterine and cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy and 2 years of postoperative chemotherapy, presented to the emergency department with dyspnea on exertion. Computed tomography of the chest revealed a large pericardial effusion and a sacciform aneurysm of the ascending aorta. The patient subsequently underwent emergency pericardiocentesis with drainage of approximately 330 ml of a bloody and turbid effusion. Cultures from the effusion yielded group B streptococcus. multiple organ failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome occurred in the acute phase, but gradually improved with continuous antibiotic therapy. On the 194th hospital day, in situ reconstruction of the ascending aorta was successfully performed using a synthetic graft. Although rarely reported, both purulent bacterial pericarditis and mycotic aneurysm can be life-threatening.
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10/91. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium in a 2 month old successfully treated without surgery.

    The authors report a case of primary idiopathic chylopericardium in a previously healthy 2-month-old infant. He was treated with continuous pericardial drainage and low-fat total parenteral nutrition. He remains asymptomatic after 14 months of follow-up. This is the first report of primary idiopathic chylopericardium successfully treated nonoperatively.
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