Cases reported "Pericarditis"

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1/188. carcinoid heart disease from ovarian primary presenting with acute pericarditis and biventricular failure.

    A case is described of a 54 year old woman who had acute pericarditis with large exudative effusion accompanied by severe right and left ventricular failure. The patient was finally diagnosed with carcinoid heart disease from an ovarian carcinoid teratoma. She was treated with octreotide--a somatostatin analogue--followed by radical surgical resection of the neoplasm. At one year follow up only mild carcinoid tricuspid regurgitation remained. Only 16 cases of carcinoid heart disease from an ovarian primary have been described in literature. Moreover clinically manifest acute, nonmetastatic pericarditis and left heart failure are not considered as possible presentations of carcinoid heart disease, whatever the origin. In a recent series a small pericardial effusion was considered an infrequent and unexpected echocardiographic finding in carcinoid heart patients. One case of "carcinoid pericarditis" has previously been described as a consequence of pericardial metastasis. Left sided heart involvement is usually caused by bronchial carcinoids or patency of foramen ovale; both were excluded in the case presented.
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2/188. hypothyroidism presenting as acute cardiac tamponade with viral pericarditis.

    This report describes the case of a young woman who presented to an emergency department with severe abdominal pain and shock. The patient was found to have pericardial tamponade due to a massive pericardial effusion. On further evaluation, the etiology of this effusion was considered to be secondary to hypothyroidism with concominant acute viral pericarditis leading to a fulminant tamponade. The presentation, differential diagnosis, and management of pericardial effusion and tamponade secondary to hypothyroidism and viral pericarditis are discussed. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism in conjunction with acute viral pericarditis should be considered in patients presenting with unexplained pericardial effusion and tamponade.
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3/188. pericarditis associated with longstanding mesalazine administration in a patient.

    An adult male patient was admitted for a pericardial effusion occurring during a longstanding mesalazine treatment for Crohn's disease. The relation between the drug's administration, symptoms and ECG changes suggests that the pericardial injury was caused by mesalazine. Also, the rapid resolution of clinical signs and ECG changes following the drug withdrawal were in agreement with this hypothesis. Eight months later, the patient remains well and symptom-free, and ECG and echocardiographic control were normal.
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4/188. Non-surgical treatment of purulent pericarditis, due to non-encapsulated haemophilus influenzae, in an immunocompromised patient.

    A 59-year-old woman suffering from rheumatoid arthritis was admitted with pleural empyema and pericarditis due to non-encapsulated H. influenzae, and developed signs of cardiac tamponade. Purulent pericarditis resolved after ultrasound-guided percutaneous aspiration and systemic antimicrobial therapy. Serial echocardiographic examinations showed a slowly vanishing effusion. Long term follow-up revealed no evidence of pericardial constriction. This case illustrates that life-threatening purulent pericarditis in an immunocompromised patient may respond well to non-surgical treatment.
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5/188. Endoscopic pericardial fenestration for a patient with sustained lupus pericarditis.

    A 57-year-old woman was diagnosed in January 1982 with SLE based on ANA 1:640, positive LE cell preparation, proteinuria (3 ), and pericarditis. In 1984, 1994, and 1997, the pericardial effusion was noted to have increased without signs of disease exacerbation or cardiac tamponade, and pericardial drainage was repeated to control the effusion. A massive pericardial effusion developed in August 1997. After tuberculosis, hypothyroidism, neoplasm, and progression of SLE were ruled out, we decided to perform pericardial fenestration. A safe and minimally invasive pericardial fenestration was successfully completed endoscopically. Pathologic study of the specimen revealed chronic pericarditis. We consider endoscopic pericardial fenestration to be useful for at risk patients with pericarditis to control the effusion and establish a differential diagnosis.
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6/188. Serosal complications of single-agent low-dose methotrexate used in gestational trophoblastic diseases: first reported case of methotrexate-induced peritonitis.

    methotrexate (MTX) is a folate antagonist widely used both as an anticancer drug and as an immunosupressant. Administration of an 8-day methotrexate and folinic acid regime may be associated with pleuritic chest pain and pneumonitis. We have reviewed the toxicity seen in 168 consecutive patients treated with low-dose MTX for persistent trophoblastic disease. Twenty-five per cent of patients developed serosal symptoms, pleurisy was the commonest complaint. The majority of patients had mild to moderate symptoms which were controlled with simple analgesia and did not necessitate a change in treatment; 11.9% had severe symptoms which necessitated a change in treatment. One patient developed a pericardial effusion and a second patient developed severe reversible peritoneal irritation. The possible aetiology and pathophysiology of methotrexate-induced serosal toxicity is discussed.
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7/188. Mesothelial hyperplasia with reactive atypia: diagnostic pitfalls and role of immunohistochemical studies-a case report.

    The cytomorphologic features of highly reactive mesothelial cells can be difficult to distinguish from malignant cells. We report on an unusual case of mesothelial hyperplasia in a pericardial effusion. The specimen contained bizarre-shaped cells and large tissue fragments in a patient with a history of lung carcinoma. The atypical cells were negative for CEA and LeuM-1 and positive for cytokeratins (AE1/3) and HBME-1. Strong HBME-1 positivity supported a mesothelial origin of the atypical cells and led to the diagnosis of reactive mesothelium. While HBME-1 cannot be used as the sole marker to establish an mesothelial origin; its use in a immunohistochemistry panel may be useful in individual cases to distinguish reactive mesothelial cells from carcinoma in effusion cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2000;22:113-116.
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8/188. Purulent pericarditis due to group B streptococcus and mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta: case report.

    A 61-year-old female, with a history of uterine and cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy and 2 years of postoperative chemotherapy, presented to the emergency department with dyspnea on exertion. Computed tomography of the chest revealed a large pericardial effusion and a sacciform aneurysm of the ascending aorta. The patient subsequently underwent emergency pericardiocentesis with drainage of approximately 330 ml of a bloody and turbid effusion. Cultures from the effusion yielded group B streptococcus. multiple organ failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome occurred in the acute phase, but gradually improved with continuous antibiotic therapy. On the 194th hospital day, in situ reconstruction of the ascending aorta was successfully performed using a synthetic graft. Although rarely reported, both purulent bacterial pericarditis and mycotic aneurysm can be life-threatening.
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9/188. pericarditis due to Tsutsugamushi disease.

    Tsutsugamushi Disease is an acute febrile illness caused by rickettsia tsutsugamushi, which enters into the human bloodstream through the bite of leptotrombidium. It is characterized by eschar, fever and cutaneous rash. pericardial effusion in Tsutsugamushi Disease is not a common manifestation, although a high rate of effusion was reported in autopsy in those who had died of the disease. Here, we report a case of Tsutsugamushi pericarditis documented by indirect immunofluorescent test of pericardial fluid, and give a brief review of the literature.
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10/188. Staphylococcal pericarditis following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    Infectious complications occurring after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty are uncommon. We are reporting a case of bacterial pericarditis developing 1 week after coronary angioplasty and stent implantation. Treatment with appropriate antibiotics and drainage of the infected pericardial effusion was followed by a protracted hospital course and eventual control of infection and discharge of the patient.
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