Cases reported "pericarditis"

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1/692. Pericardial heart disease: a study of its causes, consequences, and morphologic features.

    This report reviews morphologic aspects of pericardial heart disease. A morphologic classification for this condition is presented. An ideal classification of pericardial heart disease obviously would take into account clinical, etiologic and morphologic features of this condition but a single classification combining these three components is lacking. Pericardial heart disease is relatively uncommon clinically, and when present at necropsy it usually had not been recognized during life. The term "pericarditis" is inaccurate because most pericardial diseases are noninflammatory in nature. Morphologically chronic pericardial heart disease may present clinically as an acute illness. Even when clinical symptoms are present, however, few patients develop evidence of cardiac dysfunction (constriction). When pericardial constriction occurs, it is the result of increased pericardial fluid or increased pericardial tissue or both. Increased fluid is treated by drainage; increased tissue is treated by excision. In most patients with chronic constrictive pericarditis the etiology is not apparent even after histologic examination of pericardia. ( info)

2/692. Pseudomonal pericarditis complicating cystic fibrosis.

    patients with advanced cystic fibrosis typically have chronic bacterial infection of the upper and lower respiratory tracts, but rarely develop extrapulmonary sites of infection. We report a case of purulent pericarditis due to pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with cystic fibrosis and no other risk factors for pericarditis. This is a previously unreported complication in cystic fibrosis prior to lung transplantation. ( info)

3/692. carcinoid heart disease from ovarian primary presenting with acute pericarditis and biventricular failure.

    A case is described of a 54 year old woman who had acute pericarditis with large exudative effusion accompanied by severe right and left ventricular failure. The patient was finally diagnosed with carcinoid heart disease from an ovarian carcinoid teratoma. She was treated with octreotide--a somatostatin analogue--followed by radical surgical resection of the neoplasm. At one year follow up only mild carcinoid tricuspid regurgitation remained. Only 16 cases of carcinoid heart disease from an ovarian primary have been described in literature. Moreover clinically manifest acute, nonmetastatic pericarditis and left heart failure are not considered as possible presentations of carcinoid heart disease, whatever the origin. In a recent series a small pericardial effusion was considered an infrequent and unexpected echocardiographic finding in carcinoid heart patients. One case of "carcinoid pericarditis" has previously been described as a consequence of pericardial metastasis. Left sided heart involvement is usually caused by bronchial carcinoids or patency of foramen ovale; both were excluded in the case presented. ( info)

4/692. Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle after isolated pericarditis and staphylococcus aureus septicemia.

    Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm after isolated pericarditis as a result of Staphylococcal septicemia is very rare. A case of a very young patient is described. diagnosis is made by echocardiography. Immediate surgical resection of the pseudoaneurysm is the therapy of choice. ( info)

5/692. Purulent pericarditis misdiagnosed as septic shock.

    BACKGROUND: Septic shock is common, with approximately 200,000 cases recognized annually. This syndrome is so well characterized that when a patient is febrile and in shock, septic shock may be diagnosed without regard to alternative possibilities. Purulent pericarditis is a relatively rare disorder in which fever and hypotension are common. Classic signs and symptoms, such as chest pain, pericardial friction rub, pulsus paradoxus, and elevation of jugular venous pressure, are seen in only 50%. methods: In this report, we describe four patients in whom purulent pericarditis and pericardial tamponade was initially misdiagnosed as septic shock. During a 3-month period, three men and one woman (mean age, 44.5 years) came to Kern Medical Center with purulent pericarditis and pericardial tamponade. These cases represented 13% of patients admitted with a diagnosis of septic shock. RESULTS: All patients were bacteremic, and the classic findings of pericardial tamponade were absent or relatively subtle. Hemodynamic findings of elevated systemic vascular resistance, low cardiac output, and normal pulmonary artery occlusion pressure were critical to the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Consideration of purulent pericarditis is important in cases diagnosed as septic shock. Clinicians should be aware that patients with purulent pericarditis may not exhibit classic signs and symptoms, and a high index of suspicion is necessary for appropriate management. ( info)

6/692. Pericardial injury following severe sepsis from faecal peritonitis--a case report on the use of continuous cardiac output monitoring.

    We report on a case of a 43-year-old man who developed reversible myocardial depression and pericarditis related to severe sepsis secondary to rectosigmoid colonic perforation. The management of this patient was aided by the use of a continuous thermodilution cardiac output catheter and monitor, recently introduced in clinical practice. ( info)

7/692. hypothyroidism presenting as acute cardiac tamponade with viral pericarditis.

    This report describes the case of a young woman who presented to an emergency department with severe abdominal pain and shock. The patient was found to have pericardial tamponade due to a massive pericardial effusion. On further evaluation, the etiology of this effusion was considered to be secondary to hypothyroidism with concominant acute viral pericarditis leading to a fulminant tamponade. The presentation, differential diagnosis, and management of pericardial effusion and tamponade secondary to hypothyroidism and viral pericarditis are discussed. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism in conjunction with acute viral pericarditis should be considered in patients presenting with unexplained pericardial effusion and tamponade. ( info)

8/692. pericarditis associated with longstanding mesalazine administration in a patient.

    An adult male patient was admitted for a pericardial effusion occurring during a longstanding mesalazine treatment for Crohn's disease. The relation between the drug's administration, symptoms and ECG changes suggests that the pericardial injury was caused by mesalazine. Also, the rapid resolution of clinical signs and ECG changes following the drug withdrawal were in agreement with this hypothesis. Eight months later, the patient remains well and symptom-free, and ECG and echocardiographic control were normal. ( info)

9/692. Acute myocardial infarction: a rare presentation of pancreatic carcinoma.

    Secondary neoplastic involvement of the heart is common but usually asymptomatic. Malignancy rarely presents as acute pericarditis, cardiac tamponade, and myocardial infarction in the same patient. We report a patient with unsuspected metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma who presented with acute pericarditis and cardiac tamponade and subsequently developed a myocardial infarction due to coronary artery occlusion secondary to a metastatic deposit around the left anterior descending artery. ( info)

10/692. Steroid-responsive pleuropericarditis and livedo reticularis in an unusual case of adult-onset primary hyperoxaluria.

    We present a case of a 54-year-old woman with rapidly progressive renal failure of uncertain origin, who developed pleuropericarditis and livedo reticularis 6 weeks after initiation of hemodialysis (HD). The presentation with acute renal failure, the development of serositis, and the dramatic clinical response to empiric steroid therapy initially suggested the diagnosis of a systemic inflammatory disorder or vasculitis. Renal biopsy, performed 3 days after presentation, suggested crystal deposition disease, and subsequent investigations, using both dialysate oxalate concentrations and liver biopsy, led to the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria (PH). We discuss this atypical adult presentation of PH and propose a role for the use of steroids in the management of the acute inflammatory symptoms of oxalosis. We also briefly discuss the current medical management of patients with PH, including transplantation. ( info)
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