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1/21. Human histologic evaluation of a bovine-derived bone xenograft in the treatment of periodontal osseous defects.

    This study evaluated a bovine-derived bone xenograft (Bio-Oss) in the treatment of human periodontal osseous defects. Four patients with at least one tooth that had been recommended for extraction because of interproximal advanced periodontal disease volunteered to participate. The surgical procedure consisted of flap reflection, soft tissue debridement, placing a notch in calculus as a histologic reference point, root planing, placement of the bovine-derived xenograft and a bioresorbable physical barrier, and flap closure. patients were seen every 2 weeks for plaque control and any necessary adjunctive treatment. At 4 to 6 months postsurgery, 6 teeth, along with the adjacent graft site, were removed en bloc. Histologic observations demonstrated new bone, new cementum, and new periodontal ligament coronal to the reference notch in 3 of the 4 specimens. This study indicates that periodontal regeneration is possible following grafting with a bovine-derived xenograft.
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2/21. Periodontal regeneration of a class II furcation defect utilizing a bioabsorbable barrier in a human. A case study with histology.

    This case report describes human histologic data of periodontal regeneration following guided tissue regeneration therapy (GTR) with a bioabsorbable barrier composed of polylactic acid. The tooth that was examined was part of a previously published study of the clinical effects of GTR therapy without the use of bone or bone substitutes on Class II furcation defects. Twenty-five months following the surgical procedure, the tooth was extracted for non-periodontal reasons. During this extraction, the bone within the furcation that was treated in the study was luxated with the tooth. At the completion of the study (month 12), the furcation's vertical probing depth had decreased by 2 mm with a 2 mm gain in clinical attachment. The horizontal furcation measurement decreased by 3 mm. Following extraction, the tooth was prepared for light microscopy and sectioned in the mesial-distal plane. Reference notches were not placed in the tooth at the time of surgery as there were no plans to perform histologic analysis in the study. However, using the buccal root prominences and what we interpreted to be root planing marks on the cementum, we were able to demonstrate that complete periodontal regeneration occurred on the root surface that was exposed to the pocket environment prior to surgery. New alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament were consistently observed throughout the furcation in the areas that demonstrated clinical attachment gain and a decrease in horizontal probing depth. This case report adds to the accumulating evidence of histologic periodontal regeneration following guided tissue regeneration with bioabsorbable polylactic acid barriers.
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3/21. Combined mechanical and antibiotic periodontal therapy in a case of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Papillon Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is a rare entity and, as such, it is almost impossible to evaluate an effective therapy in a randomized controlled study. The amount of success reported after therapy for prepubertal periodontitis (PP) in PLS is highly variable from case to case. The goal of this case report is to evaluate the effects of a combined mechanical and antibiotic periodontal therapy regimen in the management of PLS. methods: A male patient was diagnosed as suffering from PP associated with PLS at the age of 7 years. He showed hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, as well as advanced periodontal disease already affecting permanent teeth with maximal probing depth and vertical attachment loss of 12 mm and 11 mm, respectively. Subgingival debridement was performed with simultaneous administration of oral 250 mg amoxicillin 3 times daily and 250 mg metronidazole twice daily for one week. Clinical parameters were assessed and subgingival plaque was collected from all teeth prior to therapy and 7 and 26 months after treatment. Selective cultures for A. actinomycetemcomitans were incubated for each individual tooth and DNA probe analysis was performed for various periodontal pathogens. RESULTS: Prior to combined mechanical and antibiotic treatment, all teeth but one harbored actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans subgingivally. However, at 7 and 26 months after therapy A. actinomycetemcomitans could be detected neither by culture nor by dna probes. Clinical parameters improved markedly and teeth erupting after therapy did not exhibit attachment loss of more than 1.5 mm during the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication (suppression beneath detection levels) of A. actinomycetemcomitans seems to play a significant role in the successful treatment of localized prepubertal periodontitis in PLS.
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4/21. Treatment of a palatal-gingival groove using enamel matrix derivative.

    This case report demonstrates the treatment of a severe palatal-gingival groove on a maxillary lateral incisor. Periodontal surgery for tissue preservation and esthetics included odontoplasty, citric acid application, and the placement of porcine enamel matrix protein. At intervals up to 15 months postoperatively, the site remained free of signs of clinical inflammation and revealed a stable decrease of 8 mm to 9 mm in probing depth. This surgical procedure improved the long-term prognosis for this tooth from poor to excellent.
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5/21. Periodontal healing in humans using anorganic bovine bone and bovine peritoneum-derived collagen membrane: a clinical and histologic case report.

    The authors report the clinical and histologic data on the healing of a severe periodontal lesion obtained in a one-walled intrabony defect using anorganic bovine bone under a bovine peritoneum-derived collagen membrane. Eight months after surgery, a bone-like tissue replaced the lost tissues. A biopsy of this tissue was carried out. In the part of the specimen closer to the residual bony wall of the original defect, anorganic bone particles (ABP) appeared to be surrounded by a layer of newly formed bone; its osteocyte lacunae were colonized by osteocytes from the host, and actively secreting osteoblasts were observed in many microscopic fields. No resorption phenomena were observed in the ABP Newly formed cementum with actively secreting cementoblasts was present on the tooth surface, and well-oriented fibers inserting in both newly formed cementum and bone were observed. In an area far from residual bone, all ABP did not appear to be surrounded by newly formed bone. Osteocytic lacunae appeared not to be colonized by cells, and ABP was surrounded by dense connective tissue without osteoblasts near the grafted particles. A very limited amount of newly formed bone, without relations with ABP, was observed close to the root surface. From a clinical point of view, anorganic bone in association with a collagen membrane can be effective in the treatment of bony defects characterized by an unfavorable architecture. From a histologic point of view, the clinical appearance of bone regeneration is not always confirmed in the part of the defect far from the bony walls.
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6/21. The use of orthodontic intrusive movement to reduce infrabony pockets in adult periodontal patients: a case report.

    Clinicians often encounter osseous defects that are best treated by conventional surgical techniques, including bone grafting and guided tissue regeneration, with a goal of establishing a new connective tissue attachment. On occasion, the recognition of an infrabony defect proximal to a tooth with a large diastema may present an opportunity to consider resolution by orthodontic tooth movement. Ideally, the tooth could be moved in the proximal direction until there was no further radiographic or clinical evidence of the predisposing defect. The authors decided to treat an advanced case of adult periodontitis, with extrusion and migration of a maxillary central incisor, using a multidisciplinary approach. Radiologically, a large infrabony defect was present on the mesial aspect of the incisor, with an initial probing depth of 9 mm. After the surgical periodontal therapy, the orthodontic movement started and the incisor was repositioned using an intrusive mechanism, also leading to the closure of the diastema. At the end of the treatment, there was a significant clinical decrease in the probing depth values, and radiographs showed a remarkable reduction of the infrabony defect volume.
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7/21. Management of fused supernumerary teeth in children using guided tissue regeneration: long-term follow up of 2 cases.

    Surgical separation of supernumerary teeth fused to permanent incisor teethhas typically given rise to residual post surgical periodontal defects, induding loss of attachment and deep periodontal pocketing with persistent inflammation. Other complications include devitalisation of the retained tooth section, ankylosis, external and replacement resorption. A unique technique of using guided tissue regeneration has been successfully employed to promote periodontal healing, after 2 cases of surgical removal of a supernumerary tooth fused to a permanent maxillary lateral incisor tooth. In the first case, a 2-stage guided tissue regeneration technique was completed with a nonresorbable Gor-Tex membrane, and was followed up after 9 years. The second case was completed using a resorbable Vicryl membrane, in a single-stage guided tissue regenerative technique; and was followed up after 5 years.
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8/21. Use of orthodontic treatment as an aid to third molar extraction: a method for prevention of mandibular nerve injury and improved periodontal status.

    BACKGROUND: Impaction of mandibular third molars predisposes to pathological conditions including periodontal disease. Extraction of these teeth also may lead to damage to the nerve and to periodontal involvement of the second molars. This report describes a series of cases in which the third molars were orthodontically induced to erupt to prevent the sequelae associated with extraction. methods: Impacted mandibular third molars in 18 patients were surgically exposed following placement of an orthodontic appliance. Depending on the individual case, 1 of 3 approaches was used: attachment of a bracket, placement of a post in the root canal, or placement of an orthodontic wire through a bucco-lingual canal. After suturing the mucoperiosteal flap, the orthodontic appliance was activated. After the tooth erupted, it was removed and periodontal parameters were measured on the second molar. RESULTS: No damage to the inferior alveolar nerve was found. Probing depths on the second molar were reduced from 7.9 /- 1.6 mm on the buccal and 7.4 /- 1.0 mm on the lingual to 1.8 /- 0.7 mm and 1.9 /- 0. 7 mm, respectively. There was an average gain of 5.0 mm in attachment. Keratinized tissue increased from 2.9 /- 0.7 to 3.8 /- 0.6 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The interdisiplinary use of periodontics and orthodontics results in non-surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars without damage to the inferior alveolar nerve and iatrogenic periodontal sequelae to the second molars.
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9/21. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis associated with generalized aggressive periodontitis: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a rare, genetically inherited overgrowth condition that is clinically characterized by a benign fibrous enlargement of maxillary and mandibular keratinized gingiva. A syndromic association between gingival fibromatosis and a wide variety of other genetically inherited disorders has been described. However, its coexistence with aggressive periodontitis has not been reported. methods: A 24-year-old African-American female, patient (proband X, [Px]) reported with a chief complaint of tooth mobility and gingival enlargement. Clinical examination revealed moderate to severe gingival overgrowth on both mandible and maxilla. Generalized attachment loss and mobility of the teeth were observed. Radiographic evaluation demonstrated severe alveolar bone loss. The patient was diagnosed with gingival fibromatosis and aggressive periodontitis based on the clinical and radiographic findings. Her brother (Bx) and her mother (Mx) were evaluated and diagnosed with gingival fibromatosis suggesting that this is a dominant trait in the family and gingival fibromatosis might be of hereditary origin. In addition, the brother also exhibited localized aggressive periodontitis. Medical history revealed no other systemic or local contributory factors associated with the oral findings in any of the subjects. RESULTS: Surgical therapy included internal bevel gingivectomy combined with open flap debridement procedures for Px and Bx. Only internal bevel gingivectomy was performed for Mx since there was mild bone resorption and no intrabony defects. At the time of surgery, gingival biopsies were obtained and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Multiple serial sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic evaluation of the gingival specimens revealed large parallel collagen bundles associated with scarce fibroblasts in the connective tissue. The collagen bundles reached into the subepithelial connective tissue where elongated rete-pegs were also observed. Following the completion of the treatment, no signs of recurrence or bone resorption were observed over 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of hereditary gingival fibromatosis associated with aggressive periodontitis. Combined treatment comprising removal of fibrotic gingival tissue and traditional flap surgery for the elimination of intrabony defects represents a unique treatment approach in periodontal therapy. Two-year follow-up revealed that both the gingival overgrowth and the destructive lesions were successfully treated.
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10/21. Spontaneous correction of pathologic tooth migration and reduced infrabony pockets following nonsurgical periodontal therapy: a case report.

    This case report describes the spontaneous correction of pathologic tooth migration and reduced infrabony pockets after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. A 3-mm diastema between the maxillary incisors was closed completely, and the mandibular teeth, which had migrated pathologically, returned to the optimal position. Clinical evaluation showed a significant reduction in probing depth, with increased clinical attachment and bone deposition demonstrated radiologically.
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