Cases reported "Periodontal Diseases"

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1/80. Pyorrhoea as cause of pyrexia.

    Three patients with fever and malaise, one of whom also had joint pains, were extensively investigated before their condition was attributed to dental sepsis. Each patient recovered fully after appropriate dental treatment. Dental sepsis should be added to the list of possible causes of pyrexia of undetermined origin, and a routine dental examination should be carried out in each case.
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2/80. The periodontal management of a patient with a profound immunodeficiency disorder.

    A case of severe, uncontrolled periodontal disease in a patient with a profound immunodeficiency disorder is reported. The periodontal disease was noted before the age of 10 years and is generalized, with marked associated alveolar bone loss, even threatening a mandibular fracture. Severely involved teeth were allowed to exfoliate, and extractions were avoided. At the age of 17 years, the patient now has only nine remaining teeth. The management adopted and alternative approaches are critically reviewed. The implications of the dental findings for current concepts of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and dental caries are discussed.
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3/80. Congenital neutropenia. Report of a case and a biorationale for dental management.

    Congenital neutropenia is characterized by a marked decrease in or lack of circulating PMN's in children with no prior history of drug intake. The neutropenia is persistent and the clinical course is one of early onset of severe, recurrent, and eventually fatal infections. Bone marrow studies show a maturation arrest of neutrophilic precursors. Because of their greatly increased susceptibility to infection, patients with congenital neutropenia present a difficult dental management problem. A case of congenital neutropenia has been presented, as well as a biorationale for dental treatment. On the basis of reports in the literature, the following recommendations for the management of patients with congenital neutropenia are made: 1. The prevention and control of infection and the interception of dental disease before surgical intervention becomes necessary should be the overriding considerations in the management of patients with congenital neutropenia. 2. The carious breakdown of teeth should be prevented by the daily application of a 0.4 per cent stannous fluoride gel in addition to oral hygiene and limitation of sucrose intake. 3. Periodontal therapy should be palliative only, since alveolar bone loss is progressive despite frequent oral hygiene instruction and prophylaxis. The goal of periodontal therapy for patients with congenital neutropenia should therefore be a decrease in gingival inflammation to make the patient's mouth more comfortable and to slow down alveolar bone loss. Periodontal surgery is contraindicated. 4. bacteremia and subsequent septicemia should be prevented since a minor infection can become life threatening in patients with congenital neutropenia. The patient should rinse for 30 seconds and the gingival sulci should be irrigated with a phenolated antiseptic mouthwash prior to all dental manipulations of the soft tissue. This will significantly reduce the incidence of bacteremia. 5. Surgery should be avoided if at all possible because of the high risk of post-operative infection. All surgery sholld be performed in the hospital, and the patient should be given antibiotics as determined by his physician. Primary closure should be done with fine polyglycolic acid sutures to reduce the chance of infection. If postoperative infection can be prevented, wound healing will progress normally despite the complete absence of PMN's.
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4/80. Implant site development using orthodontic extrusion: a case report.

    One of the most important factors in the successful placement of endosseous implants is the presence of adequate alveolar bone at the recipient site. alveolar bone loss associated with destructive periodontal disease frequently results in osseous defects that may complicate subsequent implant placement. Typically, such defects are treated prior to or at the time of implant surgery using the principles of guided bone regeneration. Under certain circumstances, however, such defects may be managed non-surgically by orthodontic extrusion. orthodontic extrusion can be used to increase the vertical bone height and volume and to establish a more favourable soft-tissue profile prior to implant placement. The addition, the increase in the vertical osseous dimension at interproximal sites may assist in the preservation of the interdental papillae and can further enhance gingival aesthetics. This report illustrates the treatment sequence for site development with orthodontic extrusion prior to immediate implant placement.
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5/80. Multiple dental extractions using general anesthesia for a patient with Down and Eisenmenger syndromes and periodontal disease.

    A patient with down syndrome and severe retardation and Eisenmenger syndrome sought dental treatment at the oregon health Sciences University Hospital Dental Service. Eisenmenger syndrome is a form of cyanotic congenital cardiovascular pulmonary disease. The cardiac structural abnormalities associated with Eisenmenger syndrome preclude the use of conscious sedation and predispose a patient to the development of bacterial endocarditis. A prophylactic antibiotic regimen is recommended for patients with Eisenmenger syndrome who are undergoing procedures that produce a transient bacteremia. This article reviews the appropriate measures necessary for the safe anesthetic, operative, and perioperative care of a severely compromised patient. It is based on an understanding of the pathophysiology associated with Eisenmenger syndrome.
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6/80. Aplastic anemia: current concepts and dental management.

    Aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare blood dyscrasia in which the peripheral blood cells are decreased because of bone marrow failure. The clinical course reflects the severity of pancytopenia and is unpredictable for the individual. hemorrhage and infection remain the major threats to these patients. Recent advances in transfusion medicine, infection management, bone marrow transplantation, and immunosuppressive therapy have improved survival of patients with AA. oral manifestations of AA are common and may have serious sequelae. Two cases of acute periodontal infection associated with AA are presented. Dental management guidelines are presented in the context of interdisciplinary care.
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7/80. Dynamics of dental implants and orthodontics in today's periodontal prosthesis.

    periodontal prosthesis refers to multidisciplinary efforts to stop disease progression, correct deformities created by dental diseases, and establish a therapeutic occlusion to restore the form and function of the masticatory system. These efforts are critical for the long-term prognosis and maintenance of the guarded teeth and the overall prosthesis. This article presents a functionally and esthetically challenging case, which illustrates a multidisciplinary approach--specifically implantology and orthodontics--and how they impact on each other during treatment. The role and importance of dental implants and orthodontics in setting up a case is illustrated in this article.
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8/80. tongue piercing and associated oral and dental complications.

    The insertion of metal objects into intraoral and perioral sites is growing in popularity. However, there are numerous oral and dental complications associated with tongue piercing. Fifteen patients with tongue piercings (pierced in the body of the tongue, anterior to the lingual frenum) attending the dental office of the authors, with and without complaints, were clinically and radiographically examined. The most common dental problem registered was chipping of teeth. Furthermore, two cracked teeth and four teeth with cusp fractures were also seen. One case of selective dental abrasion was registered. Trauma to the lingual anterior gingiva was the most common gingival problem. A salivary flow stimulating effect was only reported by 2 of the 15 individuals. None of the patients complained of interference with speech, mastication and swallowing. One case of galvanic currents produced by the appliance was registered. On the basis of the registered data, we concluded that patients need to be better informed of the potential complications associated with tongue and oral piercings, and that the dental profession can serve this role.
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9/80. Malignant lymphoma of the maxillary sinus masquerading as an odontogenic infection: report of a case.

    The dental surgeon can play an important role in the early referral of malignancy of the maxillary sinus, and should be familiar with the signs and symptoms of disease of the paranasal sinuses. Here we report a case of a 71-year-old male patient diagnosed with high-grade B-cell lymphoma of the maxillary sinus that was initially thought to be an odontogenic infection. We discuss the signs and symptoms of lymphomas and malignancy of the maxillary sinus.
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10/80. Ehlers-Danlos type VIII. review of the literature.

    Ehlers-Danlos type VIII is a rare disorder characterized by soft, hyperextensible skin, abnormal scarring, easy bruising, and generalized periodontitis with early loss of teeth. To illustrate the clinical dermatological and dental features, we present the case history of a 20-year-old patient who has suffered from poor healing of wounds at the shins and knees since childhood, which have developed into hyperpigmented atrophic scars. In the course of orthodontic treatment during the last 3 years, severe apical root resorption, gingival recession, and loss of alveolar bone were observed. family history was noncontributory for any skin or tooth disorders. The typical clinical signs confirmed the diagnosis of ehlers-danlos syndrome type VIII. As there is no specific treatment for the disorder, management is limited to the symptomatic treatment of the dental disease. It seems advisable to consider carefully the indications for orthodontic treatment in patients with Ehlers-Danlos type VIII syndrome.
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