Cases reported "Periodontal Pocket"

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1/69. Tissue necrosis after subgingival irrigation with fluoride solution.

    Irrigation of periodontal pockets with fluoride solution after scaling and root planing is occasionally recommended to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the periodontal pocket. At the same time, irrigation enables mechanical removal of loosely adhering plaque and debris. Due to its toxicity, fluoride solution deposited in the periodontium may lead to tissue damage. We report in this paper, a case of extensive periodontal tissue necrosis and permanent loss of alveolar bone after irrigation of periodontal pockets with stannous fluoride solution. The literature on the toxic effects of fluoride on the local tissues is briefly reviewed and arguments for a re-evaluation of the use of stannous fluoride for pocket irrigation are provided.
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keywords = bone
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2/69. Effective periodontal treatment in a patient with type IIA von Willebrand's disease: report of a case.

    von Willebrand's disease (vWD) is one of the most common hereditary hemorrhagic disorders. A mild to moderate deficiency of factor viii and von willebrand factor (vWf) often is associated with gingival bleeding. In this case report, the periodontal treatment of a patient with vWD is described. A 45-year-old woman with type IIA vWD was referred for periodontal therapy because of an episode of gingival hemorrhage and percussion pain of teeth #18 and #47. The periodontal findings included probing depths ranging from 2 to 6 mm, horizontal bone loss, and Class II furcation involvement of tooth #46. After consultation with a hematologist, apically positioned flap surgery and hemisection were performed on tooth #46 following completion of oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing, and endodontic therapy. The patient was given 500 units of factor viii including vWf multimer 30 minutes before surgery. After healing of the periodontal tissue, prosthodontic treatment was undertaken on the posterior mandibular sextants. At follow-up, the probing depths ranged from 2 to 3 mm, and gingival bleeding on probing was minimal. The patient's children all had vWD. They had mild to moderate periodontitis with probing depths ranging from 2 to 5 mm and gingival bleeding on probing. With the combined efforts of the periodontist and hematologist, effective periodontal treatment can be provided to patients with von Willebrand's disease.
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keywords = bone
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3/69. Treatment of molar furcation involvement using root separation and a crown and sleeve-coping telescopic denture. A longitudinal study.

    Because of the inconsistent results of periodontal and prosthetic therapy, periodontists may choose to treat maxillary molar furcation involvements (FI) with poor root morphology utilizing a root resection technique (RRT). In addition, poor root morphology of the remaining root following RRT is usually considered a high risk factor for long-term periodontal and prosthetic success. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the differences in the clinical periodontal parameters between molar abutments with and without molar root separation and/or resection (RSR) before and after periodontal and prosthetic therapy, using a crown and sleeve-coping telescopic denture (CSCTD). A total of 85 molars (47 maxillary and 38 mandibular) were treated in 25 subjects. There were 33 abutments without root separation/resection and 52 abutments with RSR. Forty-three CSCTD were placed, 23 in the maxillary arch and 20 in the mandibular arch. The mean observation period was 6.7 /-1.9 years (range, 5 to 13 years). The plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and alveolar bone change were recorded. The differences in these parameters before and after periodontal and prosthetic therapy between the advanced furcation-involved molars with and without RSR were evaluated. The results revealed a remarkable improvement in the periodontal parameters in advanced Class II and Class III FI in molars with RSR as compared to those without RSR. It was, therefore, concluded that molar abutments with RSR in conjunction with a specifically designed telescopic device provide a modified approach for treating molars with advanced Class II and III FI.
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keywords = bone
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4/69. Radiographic bone fill following debridement of a periodontal abscess. A case report.

    A periodontal abscess often develops in association with deepened periodontal pockets. Traditional management is by establishing drainage and prescribing antibiotics. This is usually followed by surgical pocket reduction. This case report discusses the remarkable healing of a periodontal abscess by establishing drainage alone without resorting to surgical pocket reduction. A 42-year-old white male presented with swollen gingivae associated with the mesiolingual of tooth #23. Increased probing depth and suppuration were evident. Radiographic bone loss on mesial #23 was present. A diagnosis of periodontal abscess was established. The abscess was drained through the orifice of the pocket. The patient failed to return for follow-up as instructed. A year later, the patient came back. Clinical evaluation showed healthy gingival tissues with probing depth of 3 mm on the mesiolingual of tooth #23. Radiographic evaluation showed bone fill of the osseous defect on the mesial of #23. The results of this case suggest that sufficient time should be allowed for healing prior to surgical pocket reduction.
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ranking = 6
keywords = bone
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5/69. Human histologic evaluation of bioactive ceramic in the treatment of periodontal osseous defects.

    This study examined the healing of intrabony defects around 5 teeth treated with bioactive glass ceramic (PerioGlas). Healing was evaluated by clinical measurements, radiographic observation, and histologic analysis. The protocol included a presurgical phase of scaling and root planing therapy, with measurements obtained immediately prior to the surgical procedures and after 6 months of healing. Following therapy there was a mean of 2.7 mm of probing depth reduction, 2.2 mm of clinical attachment gain, and 0.5 mm of recession. The histologic analysis revealed healing by a long junctional epithelium with minimal new connective tissue attachment to the teeth, except in one case where the intrabony region demonstrated new cementum formation and new connective tissue attachment. Graft particles were found to be biocompatible, as evidenced by being embedded in a stroma of dense connective tissue with minimal inflammatory infiltrate. There was minimal new bone formation limited to the most apical borders of the defects. No signs of periodontal regeneration as defined by new cementum, periodontal ligament, and bone formation on a previously diseased root surface were observed. Although the clinical results are encouraging and radiographs evidenced radiopacities within the defects, histologic analysis revealed that as a periodontal grafting material, bioactive glass ceramic has only limited regenerative properties.
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keywords = bone
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6/69. The use of autologous growth factors in periodontal surgical therapy: platelet gel biotechnology--case reports.

    The role of polypeptide growth factors in periodontal regeneration has been documented through animal and human studies. Human platelets contain platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in their alpha granules. PDGF has been shown to play a role in periodontal regeneration. It has been demonstrated that TGF-beta has a very potent effect on cells associated with bone. The case reports presented demonstrate a new biotechnology in which platelet gel is used in combination with demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts for the treatment of periodontal osseous defects. The treated teeth presented with severe bone loss and a guarded prognosis. Platelet gel biotechnology was used as a novel treatment modality. A significant reduction in probing depths was noted, and radiographically significant amounts of new bone were visible as early as 2 months postoperative. Results up to 2 years postoperative are presented.
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ranking = 4
keywords = bone
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7/69. Human histologic evaluation of a bone graft combined with GTR in the treatment of osseous dehiscence defects: a case report.

    There are many possible goals and outcomes of periodontal surgical therapy, but the ultimate goal is regeneration. Since the definition of periodontal regeneration is histologic, it is difficult to document. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a technique that combined a bone graft and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) to see if regeneration occurred. Four teeth with dehiscence-type osseous defects that were scheduled for extraction were treated with bone grafts and GTR. During the surgical procedure, a notch was placed into the root at the apical extent of the calculus. The teeth were extracted with conservative block sections 7 months after the treatment. They were processed, sectioned, stained, and evaluated histologically. The results revealed that regeneration did not occur in any of the teeth treated. In 2 of the teeth new connective tissue attachment was formed. In these 2 teeth cementum could be seen in the notch with connective tissue fibers inserting into the cementum. In one of the teeth the junctional epithelium extended apical to the notch, while in 3 cases the epithelium stopped at or coronal to the notch. In this case report, no regeneration could be documented, but new attachment could be seen in 2 of the 4 teeth treated.
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ranking = 6
keywords = bone
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8/69. Periodontal regeneration of a class II furcation defect utilizing a bioabsorbable barrier in a human. A case study with histology.

    This case report describes human histologic data of periodontal regeneration following guided tissue regeneration therapy (GTR) with a bioabsorbable barrier composed of polylactic acid. The tooth that was examined was part of a previously published study of the clinical effects of GTR therapy without the use of bone or bone substitutes on Class II furcation defects. Twenty-five months following the surgical procedure, the tooth was extracted for non-periodontal reasons. During this extraction, the bone within the furcation that was treated in the study was luxated with the tooth. At the completion of the study (month 12), the furcation's vertical probing depth had decreased by 2 mm with a 2 mm gain in clinical attachment. The horizontal furcation measurement decreased by 3 mm. Following extraction, the tooth was prepared for light microscopy and sectioned in the mesial-distal plane. Reference notches were not placed in the tooth at the time of surgery as there were no plans to perform histologic analysis in the study. However, using the buccal root prominences and what we interpreted to be root planing marks on the cementum, we were able to demonstrate that complete periodontal regeneration occurred on the root surface that was exposed to the pocket environment prior to surgery. New alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament were consistently observed throughout the furcation in the areas that demonstrated clinical attachment gain and a decrease in horizontal probing depth. This case report adds to the accumulating evidence of histologic periodontal regeneration following guided tissue regeneration with bioabsorbable polylactic acid barriers.
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ranking = 4
keywords = bone
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9/69. Metal piercing through the tongue and localized loss of attachment: a case report.

    The piercing of intraoral structures to accommodate different types of jewelry has increased in popularity in the last few years. The association of an intraoral piercing with localized periodontitis is not well documented in the literature. A 22-year-old male presented to our clinic with a tongue stud placed through the mid-dorsum of his tongue. The inferior sphere was coated with plaque and calculus. Teeth #24 and #25 exhibited 6 mm interproximal probing depth and recession, horizontal radiographic bone loss, and tissue indentations consistent with the shape of the inferior ball of the tongue stud directly on the lingual surfaces of both teeth. The treatment consisted of an adult prophylaxis, flap curettage of the mandibular anterior region, oral hygiene instructions, and removal of the tongue stud. At our follow-up visit, the patient's oral hygiene had improved, he has removed the jewelry, and the attachment loss appears to have stabilized.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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10/69. Treatment of peri-implant defects with the vertical ridge augmentation procedure: a patient report.

    Most clinical patient reports apply the biologic principles of guided bone regeneration, in addition to defect filling with autogenous bone grafts or bone graft substitutes, in peri-implantitis therapy. Not infrequently, sites with membrane coverage have revealed early exposure, with subsequent infections, premature membrane removal, and insufficient bone regeneration. The present patient report demonstrates another surgical approach that uses the clinical principles and soft tissue management of vertical ridge augmentation, strictly following the same surgical protocol, on previously cleaned implant surfaces. The successful outcome of this surgical approach in one patient supports the feasibility of the selected treatment method in maintaining both the implants and the prosthetic reconstruction involved with peri-implantitis.
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ranking = 4
keywords = bone
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