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1/84. sciatic nerve injury associated with fracture of the femoral shaft.

    The sciatic nerve escapes injury in most fractures of the femoral shaft. We report a case of sciatic nerve palsy associated with a fracture at the distal shaft of the femur. The common peroneal division of the sciatic nerve was lacerated by a bone fragment at the fracture site. Despite the delay in treatment, a satisfactory result was obtained.
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2/84. polyradiculoneuropathy revealing a solitary plasmacytoma of the ilium. A new case-report.

    Neurological manifestations are uncommon in myeloma patients, and subacute polyradiculoneuropathy as the inaugural manifestations of solitary plasmacytoma of bone is exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who was evaluated for a three-month history of flaccid tetraplegia with a gradually ascending onset and for a deterioration in general health. electromyography findings were consistent with polyradiculoneuropathy. Laboratory tests showed a moderate amount of a monoclonal IgG-lambda antibody. Findings were normal from a radiographic bone survey and a radionuclide bone scan. Computed tomography of the pelvis disclosed a solitary osteolytic lesion in the right iliac crest, which was found upon biopsy to be a malignant plasmacytoma. radiation therapy and chemotherapy were given. Subacute or chronic polyradiculoneuropathy as the inaugural manifestation of solitary plasmacytoma is exceedingly rare and should be distinguished from the sensorimotor polyneuropathy produced by plasma cell infiltration in some multiple myeloma patients. The polyradiculoneuropathy of solitary plasmacytoma can be likened to the neuropathies seen in some forms of multiple myeloma (sclerotic myeloma and poems syndrome). The pathophysiology of these neuropathies remains obscure. The case reported here suggests that patients with unexplained lasting polyradiculoneuropathy should be investigated for a plasma cell proliferation even if they have no serum monoclonal component. Because plasmacytomas are painless, imaging studies are needed for their diagnosis. The management of the neuropathy consists in treatment of the tumor.
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3/84. Vasculitic neuropathy in association with chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    A 43-year-old woman is reported who developed acute and later chronic graft-versus-host disease following an unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia. Four years later, she developed a sensory multiple mononeuropathy with biopsy features of chronic vasculitis. This is the first report of vasculitic neuropathy in association with graft-versus-host disease.
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4/84. Central and peripheral nervous system complications following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Although graft vs. host disease (GvHD) is a frequent complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), involvement of the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS, respectively) has not been demonstrated conclusively. Here, we report of a patient who, following allogeneic BMT for lymphoblastic T-cell lymphoma, suffered a syndrome characterized by self-remitting cerebellar and pyramidal signs associated with a progressive involvement of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Clinical course and laboratory findings correlated with relapses of systemic GvDH, thus suggesting the possibility that involvement of CNS and PNS may be sustained by a similar pathogenic mechanism.
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5/84. Painful peripheral neuropathy after treatment with high-dose ifosfamide.

    BACKGROUND: ifosfamide is successfully employed in the treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in children and young adults. Used at high doses (HDI) the drug may cause severe multiorgan toxicity. Peripheral neuropathy is a less well-known side effect that may limit its use. We describe a 16-year-old girl with a Ewing sarcoma who was given post-operative treatment with HDI (15 mg/m(2) infused over 5 days). After the second course she experienced paresthesias in both feet. After the third course she developed signs of severe toxicity in the CNS, kidneys, heart, and severe pain in her feet. PROCEDURE: Neurologic and neurophysiologic investigations, including neurographic studies of motor and sensory nerves, EMG, and thermotest, were performed in the acute phase and after 6 and 21 months, respectively. Renal and cardiac function was also assessed. RESULTS: She developed generalized weakness of the arms and legs and an extremely painful hyperesthesia of the soles. The symptoms improved gradually during follow-up but remained to some extent even after more than 2 years. Serial neurophysiologic investigations indicated classical signs of axonal neuropathy, which tended to improve during follow-up. After 18 months the glomerular filtration rate and the effective renal plasma flow were 30 and 12% of normal, respectively, while other organ functions had returned to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy after HDI may herald severe multiorgan toxicity, if continued. Early administration of anesthetics through the intrathecal route should be considered in case of ifosfamide-induced painful peripheral neuropathy.
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6/84. Vasculitic neuropathy in hiv infection: a clinicopathological study.

    vasculitis causing peripheral neuropathy may be the first sign of hiv infection. We report four such cases in whom the onset of peripheral neuropathy led to the detection of hiv infection. Two patients presented with features of mononeuritis multiplex, while the other two had a lumbosacral polyradiculopathy. A prior history of blood transfusion was forthcoming in one of the patients. sural nerve biopsies in all the four cases and the muscle biopsy in two, histologically showed evidence of vasculitis. Immunohistochemically, the viral antigen was not demonstrable in any of the biopsies, but on electron microscope, virus-like particles were identifiable in the Schwann cell cytoplasm and the perivascular macrophages in one case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only report that has documented the virus in the schwann cells as well as the perivascular macrophages lending credence to the fact that these viruses are neurotropic as well as lymphotropic. Immunoglobulin deposits were not demonstrable in any of the cases, suggesting that direct viral invasion may have a role in the pathogenesis of peripheral nerve vasculitis.
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ranking = 434.95498779161
keywords = macrophage
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7/84. Intraosseous lipoma of the proximal radius with extraosseous extension and a secondary posterior interosseous nerve palsy.

    We describe an unusual and previously unreported case of a histologically verified solitary intraosseous lipoma of the proximal radius with extraosseous tumor extension and a secondary posterior interosseous nerve palsy. A successful outcome was achieved after intralesional resection of the soft-tissue tumor extension, curettage of the proximal radius, autogenous cancellous bone grafting of the resultant intramedullary defect, and tendon transfers.
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8/84. Heterotopic ossification of peripheral nerve ("neuritis ossificans"): report of two cases.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Heterotopic ossification ("neuritis ossificans") is among the least frequently encountered reactive lesions in peripheral nerves. Only two cases have been described previously, one in the median nerve of a 34-year-old man, and the other in the ulnar nerve of an adult woman. The architecture of this lesion is distinctly zonal. Consisting of a central fibroblastic core, an intervening zone of osteoid production, and a peripheral layer of ossification, the pattern is remarkably similar to that of myositis ossificans. This similarity and the occurrence of the process in superficial nerves have led to speculation that trauma plays a role in its pathogenesis; this hypothesis remains unproved. We describe two additional cases of neuritis ossificans. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: One patient, a 41-year-old man, experienced pain and numbness in the left leg for several months but had no history of local trauma. A mass was detected in the saphenous nerve. The second patient, a 16-year-old boy, noted subacute onset of pain in the popliteal fossa and decreased sensation in the distribution of the lateral sural cutaneous nerve. A mass was found within the tibial nerve at the knee level. INTERVENTION: In each patient, resection of the mass required sacrifice of a segment of the nerve. CONCLUSION: In each patient, the mass was composed of fibrovascular tissue with osteoid and bone deposition arranged in a zonal pattern. The ossifying process was intraneural but encased rather than directly involving nerve fascicles. These exceptionally intact examples of neuritis ossificans underscore its resemblance to myositis ossificans. Nerve-sparing resection of such masses is not always possible.
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9/84. Postvaccinal inflammatory neuropathy: peripheral nerve biopsy in 3 cases.

    Autoimmune inflammatory polyneuropathy (PN) can be triggered by vaccination. We report 3 such cases. A 36-year-old female nurse presented 15 days after a hepatitis b vaccination (HBV) with acute sensory disturbances in the lower limbs. She had severe ataxia but no weakness. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level was 84 mg/100 mL, with 3 lymphocytes. A 66-year-old man presented 21 days after HBV with severe motor and sensory PN involving all 4 limbs. A 66-year-old man presented 15 days after a yellow fever vaccination with progressive motor and sensory PN involving all 4 limbs and bilateral facial paralysis. CSF protein level was 300 mg/100 mL, with 5 lymphocytes. Six weeks later, a tracheostomy was performed. In these 3 patients, the nerve deficits lasted for months. In each case, peripheral nerve biopsy showed KP1-positive histiocytes but no t-lymphocytes in the endoneurium. On ultrastructural examination, there was axonal degeneration in the first 2 cases; in case 2, a few myelinated fibers exhibited an intra-axonal macrophage but the myelin sheath was preserved. There was only 1 example of macrophage-associated demyelination in case 2, but these were numerous in case 3. It is likely that in the first 2 cases, an autoimmune reaction against some axonal or neuronal components was triggered by HBV. It induced an acute sensory ataxic PN in case 1 and an acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) in case 2. The third patient had a chronic inflammatory demyelinating PN, likely triggered by yellow fever vaccination.
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ranking = 434.95498779161
keywords = macrophage
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10/84. Alcohol neurolysis for persistent pain caused by superior cluneal nerves injury after iliac crest bone graft harvesting in orthopedic surgery: report of four cases and review of the literature.

    STUDY DESIGN: Harvesting of autologous bone graft from the posterior iliac crest for lumbar spinal fusions is a frequently performed procedure in orthopedic surgery. The most common complication associated with this procedure is an alteration in sensation over the donor site manifested as chronic pain, hyperesthesia, dysesthesia, or diminished sensitivity resulting from superior cluneal nerve (SCN) injury. OBJECTIVE: To predict the effectiveness of alcohol neurolysis in the treatment of persistent pain caused by the entrapment of superior cluneal nerves. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: The subjects of this study were patients with intractable pain in donor area after conventional treatments using a transverse incision, which is parallel to posterior iliac crest. The study group was composed of four patients who underwent surgery in a 1-year period and experienced chronic pain resulting from superior cluneal nerve injury. methods: No reports describing alcohol neurolysis of the superior cluneal nerve exist in the relevant literature. All four patients in this study were treated with alcohol neurolysis of the superior cluneal nerves. RESULTS: The study patients were observed up to 4 years, and none of them reported any problems. CONCLUSIONS: The authors suggest that conventional treatments be limited to a 2-month period, and that alcohol neurolysis be applied as soon as possible to prevent lengthy pain experiences.
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