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1/74. Silent occult choroidal vascular abnormalities.

    PURPOSE: To describe clinically occult choroidal vascular abnormalities that can be revealed by indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. methods: Out of approximately 2,700 patients who underwent ICG angiography, a lesion was incidentally observed in eight eyes of eight patients. In five patients, the ICG study included a second examination taken during artificially induced intraocular hypertension. Examinations were repeated in six patients over a follow-up period ranging from 4 months to 3 years. RESULTS: On ICG angiogram, the choroidal vasculopathy appeared as a round-oval hyperfluorescent area 2-4 disk diameters in size that was located at the temporal vascular arcades in six eyes, at the inferomacular region in one eye, and above the optic disk in one eye. The lesions were not identifiable with funduscopic, fluorescein angiographic, or ultrasonographic examination. The lesions filled at the same time as the choroidal arteries and lost fluorescence in mid-late phase of the ICG angiogram. The ICG series taken during induced intraocular hypertension showed the hyperfluorescent areas originated from choroidal arterial abnormalities giving rise to confluent hyperfluorescent patches. Draining vessels connecting the choroidal vasculopathy with a vortex vein were evidenced in three eyes. A sector of apparent choroidal hypoperfusion downstream from the lesion was present in three eyes. During the follow-up period, the lesions remained occult and with an unchanged ICG angiographic pattern in all patients. CONCLUSION: Some silent occult choroidal vascular abnormalities may be incidentally revealed by ICG angiography. These must be distinguished from ICG imaging of concomitant chorioretinal disorders.
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keywords = vein
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2/74. Bilateral ophthalmoplegia and exophthalmos complicating central hemodialysis catheter placement.

    We describe a 58-year-old woman who presented with bilateral ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, and headache and was found to have retrograde internal jugular vein flow secondary to a high-grade obstruction of the ipsilateral brachiocephalic vein from a previous hemodialysis catheter placement. The patient had also a high-flow dialysis graft in the ipsilateral arm. The cranial and extracranial venous system congestion resolved, and the signs disappeared soon after a balloon angioplasty and stent placement at the level of the obstruction.
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ranking = 2
keywords = vein
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3/74. Intravascular fasciitis of the forearm vein: a case report with immunohistochemical characterization.

    Intravascular fasciitis is a very unusual variant of nodular fasciitis. A unique case of this lesion occurring in the proximal portion of the superficial vein of the forearm in an otherwise healthy 26-year-old man is reported. The intravascular polypoid lesion grew longitudinally along the vascular lumen, was loosely attached to the intimal layer, and was partly anchored beyond the internal elastic lamina into the medial smooth muscle layer. However, extravascular involvement was absent. The histological features were identical to those observed in ordinary cellular nodular fasciitis. Because of its myofibroblastic phenotype exhibited by highly proliferative spindle cells, certain intimomedial myofibroblasts are thought to be the indigenous source of this unique fibroproliferative lesion. Unless the diagnosis of intravascular fasciitis is considered and appropriate differential markers examined, it may be confused with other intravascular lesions, such as intravascular leiomyoma, intravenous pyogenic granuloma, organized thrombus and, even, fibromuscular dysplasia if it arises in the arteries. A simple excision is considered curable. Even so, two recurrent cases have been documented to date.
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4/74. Vascular reconstruction utilizing artery from an amputated extremity: A case report.

    Although infrainguinal arterial reconstruction is best performed with autologous tissue, reconstruction with vein in an infected field has been associated with vein graft disruption and hemorrhage. H.P., a 61-year-old man with peripheral vascular disease, was initially seen with an infected prosthetic right femoral-tibioperoneal artery bypass graft. Because of the presence of purulent drainage from the proximal and distal anastomotic regions and his comorbidities, a right through-knee guillotine amputation was performed, followed by graft excision and groin debridement. Right hip and thigh perfusion was preserved via arterial reconstruction by using a segment of endarterectomized popliteal artery, harvested from the amputated extremity. Arterial reconstruction with autologous tissue from an amputated extremity allowed us to balance our patient's overall risks with life and tissue preservation. This technique may be applied in the settings of lower extremity ischemia, trauma, or malignancy requiring concomitant arterial or venous reconstruction.
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5/74. Distensible venous malformations of the orbit: clinical and hemodynamic features and a new technique of management.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate distensible venous malformations of the orbit (DVMO) as part of a spectrum of orbital vascular malformations, including some that involved periorbital skin, extraorbital sites (central nervous system or nasal sinuses), or combinations of these. The authors also investigated the effectiveness of a new technique of management for selected cases. DESIGN: Retrospective noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients had distensible venous anomalies, of which four were combined distensible venous-lymphatic vascular malformations. Distensible lesions were defined as those showing clinical or radiographic expansion with valsalva maneuver or when the head was placed in a dependent position. These lesions were then classified as superficial (anterior to the equator of the globe), deep (posterior to the globe's equator), combined (deep and superficial), or complex (with intracranial or major extraorbital involvement). INTERVENTION: Surgery was performed on 15 patients (50%), mainly for pain or for cosmetic indications. Six patients underwent this new technique, which involved intraoperative direct venography with control of outflow via pressure at the superior or inferior orbital fissure. The venous malformation was then embolized (by use of cyanoacrylate glue) and excised. RESULTS: The mean age at presentation was 28.2 years (range, 8 months to 75 years). Sixty-six percent of cases involved the left orbit. Superior and medial orbital involvement was most common. Three cases (10%) were classified as superficial, and 13 (43%) as deep. Six patients (20%) had combined superficial and deep components. Eight (27%) had major extraorbital involvement (4 intracranial, 2 facial, and 2 paranasal sinus). Direct venography demonstrated complex multichannel anomalies draining to various sites, including the face and pterygopalatine fossa, without necessarily having a direct connection to the major orbital venous circulation. CONCLUSIONS: Distensible venous malformations of the orbit are part of a spectrum of developmental venous malformations that may be localized to the orbit or involve it as part of a more extensive lesion. The authors describe their clinical and radiologic features and report a new technique of management for selected cases. This method of vascular isolation and embolization of lesions may greatly facilitate excision.
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ranking = 0.073568415372933
keywords = deep
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6/74. may-thurner syndrome in an adolescent: persistence despite operative management.

    We describe a patient with may-thurner syndrome who underwent operative transection and transposition of the right common iliac artery without direct venous repair, because preoperative and intraoperative intravascular ultrasound scans were negative for "spurs" in the left common iliac vein. When symptoms and signs persisted, a postoperative magnetic resonance venogram (MRV) showed severe stenosis in the left common iliac vein. Progressive, but incomplete, clinical improvement occurred with conservative management.
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ranking = 2
keywords = vein
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7/74. popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: diagnosis and management, with report of three cases.

    popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is an important albeit infrequent cause of serious disability among young adults and athletes with anomalous anatomic relationships between the popliteal artery and surrounding musculotendinous structures. We report our experience with 3 patients, in whom we used duplex ultrasonography, computed tomography, digital subtraction angiography, and conventional arteriography to diagnose popliteal artery entrapment and to grade the severity of dynamic circulatory insufficiency and arterial damage. We used a posterior surgical approach to give the best view of the anatomic structures compressing the popliteal artery. In 2 patients, in whom compression had not yet damaged the arterial wall, operative decompression of the artery by resection of the aberrant muscle was sufficient. In the 3rd patient, operative reconstruction of an occluded segment with autologous vein graft was necessary, in addition to decompression of the vessel and resection of aberrant muscle. The result in each case was complete recovery, with absence of symptoms and with patency verified by Doppler examination. We conclude that clinicians who encounter young patients with progressive lowerlimb arterial insufficiency should be aware of the possibility of popliteal artery entrapment. early diagnosis through a combined approach (careful physical examination and history-taking, duplex ultrasonography, computerized tomography, and angiography) is necessary for exact diagnosis. The treatment of choice is the surgical creation of normal anatomy within the popliteal fossa.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vein
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8/74. Successful reconstruction in a patient with chronic and multisegmental venous obstruction: report of a case.

    We describe herein our technique of performing complex venous reconstruction for a patient with chronic, multiple, and long segmental venous obstruction from the left iliac vein to the infrapopliteal deep veins. To improve venous outflow and prevent venous gangrene caused by graft failure, we preserved the ipsilateral saphenous vein without dissection and performed complex venous reconstruction in the form of iliofemoral crossover bypass using a prosthetic graft, femoropopliteal bypass using the contralateral saphenous vein, both thromboembolectomy and venous repair of the infrapopliteal veins, and the creation of a distal arteriovenous fistula. The successful outcome of this surgery may provide some insight into the treatment of extended chronic venous obstruction.
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ranking = 9.8826414571031
keywords = deep vein, vein, deep
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9/74. Extra-anatomic bypass graft for management of axillary artery occlusion in pitchers.

    OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate the long-term results of vein bypass grafts for axillary artery occlusion, specifically those placed extra-anatomically to prevent arterial injury in pitchers. methods: With the greater saphenous veins used as the selected conduit, arterial bypass grafts were routed anterior to the pectoralis minor muscle in four baseball pitchers who had occlusion of the axillary artery. We performed a follow-up in excess of 10 years with evaluations of the bypass grafts by ultrasonic duplex scan and magnetic resonance angiography. RESULTS: All four pitchers treated in this manner returned to the game and played for several seasons without a recurrence of the arterial injury. Long-term evaluation of the bypass grafts did not reveal any structural or functional disorder. CONCLUSIONS: axillary artery occlusion in an athlete can be effectively treated with a vein bypass graft placed extra-anatomically, anterior to the pectoralis minor muscle. The greater saphenous vein should be considered the conduit of choice.
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ranking = 4
keywords = vein
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10/74. Surgical treatment of digital ischemia occurred after radial artery catheterization.

    Permanent ischemic injury of the hand after radial artery cannulation is rare, but several cases of thromboembolism after the cannulation leading to amputation of affected limb or digits have been reported. A 48-yr-old man undergoing spine surgery showed normal modified Allen's test and had no preoperative vascular disease. We inserted 20-G radial artery catheter for the continuous monitoring of the blood flow and serial blood sampling. There was no specific event during the operation and the catheter was removed immediately after the operation. The signs and symptoms of the circulatory impairment of the radial artery developed four days after the operation and aggravated thereafter. Through the angiographic study, we found the total occlusion of the radial artery and some of its branches. After an emergent surgical exploration of the radial artery for removal of the thrombus and vein graft for the defect of the artery on the 8th postoperative day, the ischemic signs and symptoms disappeared and the radial pulse was restored.
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ranking = 1
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