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1/41. Distensible venous malformations of the orbit: clinical and hemodynamic features and a new technique of management.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate distensible venous malformations of the orbit (DVMO) as part of a spectrum of orbital vascular malformations, including some that involved periorbital skin, extraorbital sites (central nervous system or nasal sinuses), or combinations of these. The authors also investigated the effectiveness of a new technique of management for selected cases. DESIGN: Retrospective noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients had distensible venous anomalies, of which four were combined distensible venous-lymphatic vascular malformations. Distensible lesions were defined as those showing clinical or radiographic expansion with valsalva maneuver or when the head was placed in a dependent position. These lesions were then classified as superficial (anterior to the equator of the globe), deep (posterior to the globe's equator), combined (deep and superficial), or complex (with intracranial or major extraorbital involvement). INTERVENTION: Surgery was performed on 15 patients (50%), mainly for pain or for cosmetic indications. Six patients underwent this new technique, which involved intraoperative direct venography with control of outflow via pressure at the superior or inferior orbital fissure. The venous malformation was then embolized (by use of cyanoacrylate glue) and excised. RESULTS: The mean age at presentation was 28.2 years (range, 8 months to 75 years). Sixty-six percent of cases involved the left orbit. Superior and medial orbital involvement was most common. Three cases (10%) were classified as superficial, and 13 (43%) as deep. Six patients (20%) had combined superficial and deep components. Eight (27%) had major extraorbital involvement (4 intracranial, 2 facial, and 2 paranasal sinus). Direct venography demonstrated complex multichannel anomalies draining to various sites, including the face and pterygopalatine fossa, without necessarily having a direct connection to the major orbital venous circulation. CONCLUSIONS: Distensible venous malformations of the orbit are part of a spectrum of developmental venous malformations that may be localized to the orbit or involve it as part of a more extensive lesion. The authors describe their clinical and radiologic features and report a new technique of management for selected cases. This method of vascular isolation and embolization of lesions may greatly facilitate excision.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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2/41. Redo cardiac surgery in a patient with severe peripheral vascular disease and pericardial adhesions using subclavian arterial cannulation and port-access technology.

    patients viewed as conventionally inoperative candidates are now given alternative surgical choices. The ability to provide new technology such as the port-access minimally invasive approach, kinetic venous assist, and specialized cannulae have made this possible. This case report discusses the ability to apply and modify this new technology to provide a successful surgical outcome in a patient with severe peripheral vascular disease and dense mediastinal adhesions.
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ranking = 1
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3/41. may-thurner syndrome in an adolescent: persistence despite operative management.

    We describe a patient with may-thurner syndrome who underwent operative transection and transposition of the right common iliac artery without direct venous repair, because preoperative and intraoperative intravascular ultrasound scans were negative for "spurs" in the left common iliac vein. When symptoms and signs persisted, a postoperative magnetic resonance venogram (MRV) showed severe stenosis in the left common iliac vein. Progressive, but incomplete, clinical improvement occurred with conservative management.
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ranking = 8
keywords = operative
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4/41. paraplegia after epidural anesthesia in a patient with peripheral vascular disease: case report and review of the literature with a description of an original technique for hematoma evacuation.

    Epidural hematoma after epidural anesthesia is a rare and uncommon complication in patients with peripheral vascular disease who require perioperative anticoagulation therapy. A low index of suspicion makes its diagnosis difficult and often delayed. Treatment usually involves extensive laminectomy, increasing the chances for patient complications. In this article, the authors report a case of epidural hematoma with secondary paraplegia after epidural anesthesia. Also described is an original technique for evacuating the epidural space.
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5/41. Peripheral arterial embolization: Doppler ultrasound scan diagnosis.

    Use of intraoperative monitoring with transcranial Doppler scanning during carotid endarterectomy has enabled identification of embolus signals in the ultrasound spectrum. Extension of this technique to preoperative screening has enabled identification of actively embolizing lesions and correlation with neurologic deficits. We report embolus signals in the peripheral circulation before operation, which aided diagnosis and decision to operate. The patient had been transferred from another institution after multiple revascularization procedures, including posterior tibial artery thrombectomy. angiography performed on arrival at our institution confirmed an open bypass graft, although a small indentation was noted at the site of the previous posterior tibial artery thrombectomy. Runoff was intact to the plantar arch where there was attenuation of that vessel and occlusion of most digital branches. Duplex monitoring revealed no embolic signals in the graft or in the posterior tibial artery proximal to the previous arteriotomy. Distal to this site, embolic signals were detected. At the time of operation, a large platelet thrombus was identified at the site of the previous arteriotomy, and platelet thrombus was obtained from the plantar artery. It is concluded that doppler ultrasound scanning enables detection of peripheral embolization and the identification and location of lesions with such embolic activity. Diagnostic accuracy may be improved when there is clinical suspicion of embolization, enabling better patient selection for surgical procedures. This report provides the first clinicopathologic characterization of the emboli detected.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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6/41. popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: diagnosis and management, with report of three cases.

    popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is an important albeit infrequent cause of serious disability among young adults and athletes with anomalous anatomic relationships between the popliteal artery and surrounding musculotendinous structures. We report our experience with 3 patients, in whom we used duplex ultrasonography, computed tomography, digital subtraction angiography, and conventional arteriography to diagnose popliteal artery entrapment and to grade the severity of dynamic circulatory insufficiency and arterial damage. We used a posterior surgical approach to give the best view of the anatomic structures compressing the popliteal artery. In 2 patients, in whom compression had not yet damaged the arterial wall, operative decompression of the artery by resection of the aberrant muscle was sufficient. In the 3rd patient, operative reconstruction of an occluded segment with autologous vein graft was necessary, in addition to decompression of the vessel and resection of aberrant muscle. The result in each case was complete recovery, with absence of symptoms and with patency verified by Doppler examination. We conclude that clinicians who encounter young patients with progressive lowerlimb arterial insufficiency should be aware of the possibility of popliteal artery entrapment. early diagnosis through a combined approach (careful physical examination and history-taking, duplex ultrasonography, computerized tomography, and angiography) is necessary for exact diagnosis. The treatment of choice is the surgical creation of normal anatomy within the popliteal fossa.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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7/41. Acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura following abdominal surgeries: a report of three cases.

    Acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) occurred in three patients following abdominal surgeries. One patient underwent extensive lysis for intestinal adhesions with bowel resection, another cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, and the third right colectomy and partial intestinal resection for colon cancer. The diagnosis of acute TTP was established on the basis of absent hematologic features of TTP prior to surgery and development of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), thrombocytopenia, and unexplained mental changes after surgery. Hematologic evidence of TTP developed 3 to 9 days after surgery. Other clinical features were acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in two patients and peripheral digit ischemic syndrome (PDIS) also in two patients. In all three patients, establishing the diagnosis of TTP was delayed. Exchange plasmapheresis in one patient was ineffective due to associated ARDS and two others died soon after the diagnosis was established. In view of our experience, postoperative TTP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the patient who develops unexplained anemia and thrombocytopenia following an abdominal surgery. Presence of hemolytic anemia, schistocytosis, and unexplained thrombocytopenia should alert the possibility of TTP.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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8/41. myocardial ischemia detected by transesophageal echocardiography in a patient undergoing peripheral vascular surgery.

    Prevention and early treatment of myocardial ischemia remain among the primary goals of the anesthesiologist taking care of high-risk patients, such as those undergoing vascular surgery. Guidelines have been published to assist in directing preoperative evaluation and optimization of cardiovascular status. Although perioperative monitoring allows early detection of ischemic events, all monitors have limitations that must be understood before they can be used effectively. We present a case of severe intraoperative myocardial dysfunction detected only by transesophageal echocardiography in a patient undergoing a peripheral vascular procedure. Preoperative and intraoperative management is also discussed.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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9/41. Three elderly patients with lower esophageal cancer successfully treated by transhiatal esophagectomy assisted by mediastinoscopy.

    mediastinoscopy-assisted transhiatal esophagectomy recently has been applied in patients with intrathoracic esophageal cancer. Elderly patients with esophageal cancer experience several types of complications and often cannot undergo standard transthoracic esophagectomy. In this study, three elderly patients with preoperative complications underwent mediastinoscopy-assisted transhiatal esophagectomy for esophageal cancer located in the lower part of the esophagus. Patient 1 was an 80-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Patient 2 was a 78-year-old man with bronchial asthma. Patient 3 was an 81-year-old-man with diabetes mellitus and an atherosclerotic obstruction of the lower extremities. In these patients, mediastinoscopy-assisted transhiatal esophagectomy concomitant with reconstruction by means of a gastric tube was performed. Lymph node dissections of the middle and lower mediastinum and of the abdomen, including the regions surrounding the left gastric and celiac arteries, were performed. postoperative complications developed only in patient 1; minor leakage of the esophagogastrostomy and high bilirubinemia were observed. Metastasis was detected in the lymph nodes surrounding the celiac artery in patient 1 and surrounding the left gastric artery in patients 2 and 3. Patient 2 died of pneumonia 18 months later, but the other patients have been well, without recurrence of the cancer after surgery. In conclusion, mediastinoscopy-assisted transhiatal esophagectomy has some benefits for elderly esophageal cancer patients who experience preoperative complications.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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10/41. Surgical treatment of digital ischemia occurred after radial artery catheterization.

    Permanent ischemic injury of the hand after radial artery cannulation is rare, but several cases of thromboembolism after the cannulation leading to amputation of affected limb or digits have been reported. A 48-yr-old man undergoing spine surgery showed normal modified Allen's test and had no preoperative vascular disease. We inserted 20-G radial artery catheter for the continuous monitoring of the blood flow and serial blood sampling. There was no specific event during the operation and the catheter was removed immediately after the operation. The signs and symptoms of the circulatory impairment of the radial artery developed four days after the operation and aggravated thereafter. Through the angiographic study, we found the total occlusion of the radial artery and some of its branches. After an emergent surgical exploration of the radial artery for removal of the thrombus and vein graft for the defect of the artery on the 8th postoperative day, the ischemic signs and symptoms disappeared and the radial pulse was restored.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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