Cases reported "Peritonitis"

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1/18. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis due to enterococcus cecorum.

    enterococcus cecorum was isolated as the etiologic agent of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis episode in an alcoholic patient. To date, this is only the third infection due to this bacterium, found in the intestinal tract of many domestic animals, that has been reported in humans.
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2/18. pasteurella multocida bacteremia due to non-bite animal exposure in cirrhotic patients: report of two cases.

    Pasteurella species are very small gram-negative coccobacilli. They are normal flora found in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract of many animals, and can cause various infections including septicemia and pneumonia. Human infection with pasteurella multocida occurs commonly as a localized cellulitis caused by animal bites. This report described 2 rare cases of P. multocida bacteremia in patients with liver cirrhosis and esophageal varices. Both patients had a history of contact with sick-appearing stray dogs, but neither had been bitten. P. multocida bacteremia should be included in the differential diagnosis of febrile cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices who have a history of non-bite animal exposure. Avoidance of animal contact by immunocompromised patients is the most important factor in preventing pasteurellosis.
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3/18. pasteurella multocida in peritoneal dialysis: a rare cause of peritonitis associated with exposure to domestic cats.

    pasteurella multocida is a rare cause of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients with only 10 cases reported in the literature so far. All cases were observed in patients with close contact with cats, usually with a direct puncture of the dialysis tubing. We report a case of pasteurella multocida peritonitis in a patient maintained under continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD), who had frequent and close contact with cats. patients should be made aware of this potential complication and advised to keep domestic animals away from the location of their peritoneal exchanges.
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4/18. brucella: a rare causative agent of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    We report a 54-year-old woman with hepatitis b-related chronic liver disease with ascites who developed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. blood and fluid cultures grew brucella; the patient was working at an animal husbandry till one year ago. She responded to therapy with streptomycin and tetracycline.
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5/18. rhodococcus equi peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    The human rhodococcus equi (R. equi) infection is now emerging, although extrapulmonary manifestation and isolation from patients without human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection remains unusual. Considerable effort is required to correctly identify and diagnose this facultative pathogen in patients with peritonitis in end-stage renal failure (ESRF) on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In the six cases of R. equi CAPD peritonitis reported in this series, diagnoses were made, on average, after 15 days and prolonged antibiotic therapy with morbidity in two patients. A diagnosis of R. equi should be considered in patients with suspected diphtheroid or nocardia CAPD peritonitis, even with no history of animal contact. This study is the largest series on R. equi CAPD peritonitis and highlights the impact of this disease.
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6/18. Fatal Pasteurella dagmatis peritonitis and septicaemia in a patient with cirrhosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Pasteurella species cause zoonotic infections in humans. Human pasteurella infections usually manifest as local skin or soft tissue infection following an animal bite or scratch. Systemic infections are less common and are limited to patients at the extremes of age or those who have serious underlying disorders, including cirrhosis. Most human pasteurella infections are caused by the multocida species. We report a case of Pasteurella dagmatis peritonitis and septicaemia in a patient with cirrhosis. The infection followed a scratch inflicted by a pet dog. Despite appropriate antibiotic treatment the infection proved fatal. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by P dagmatis has not been reported previously. Pasteurella dagmatis is a relatively recently described species, which is rarely reported as a human pathogen. This species may be misidentified unless commercial identification systems are supplemented by additional biochemical tests.
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7/18. A case of pasteurella multocida peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVES: Two episodes of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis, which occurred four months apart and were both due to pasteurella multocida, were noted in a 73 year old woman. This report aims to describe the clinical history of these episodes and the microbiological investigations that were undertaken. The relevant literature will also be discussed. methods AND RESULTS: Basic microbiological tests identified the organism as pasteurella multocida, and further work at a specialist laboratory classified it as pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis confirmed that the strains isolated from the two clinical episodes originated from the same clone. A literature search was performed, looking particularly for patients who experienced more than one episode of peritonitis caused by Pasteurella spp, whether due to recurrence or re-infection. CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the infection resulted from a domestic cat, as there was evidence of a cat bite to the dialysis tubing in the period between the two episodes. Re-infection with two identical strains of pasteurella is more probable than relapse, for reasons discussed. Strict hygiene and avoiding contact between dialysis tubing and domestic animals must be emphasised to try to prevent pasteurella and other animal-associated infections in this already vulnerable population.
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8/18. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with pasteurella multocida in cirrhosis: case report and review of literature.

    Most pasteurella multocida human infections involve skin and soft tissues and invariably develop after a bite or a scratch from a dog or a cat. However, other infections with this organism occur infrequently. Enteric microorganisms are the common cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). We report a case of SBP in a cirrhotic patient from P. multocida. English literature (pubmed) review revealed 12 adult cases of SBP in cirrhotic patients with P multocida. Nine patients were exposed to animals, though a break in the skin or a bite was not reported in each case. The SBP was fatal in four of these patients.
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9/18. Leukotriene inhibitors in combination with steroids: potential role in the development of primary bacterial peritonitis.

    leukotrienes play a role in inflammation, and their participation in airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction in patients with severe asthma can be ameliorated by a new class of drugs known as leukotriene modulators. The role of leukotrienes in increasing vascular permeability in experimental peritonitis and in inducing chemotaxis of inflammatory cells has recently been documented. steroids have been incriminated in the development of bacterial translocation in animal models in association with the suppression of mucosal immunity. The development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is recognized in cirrhotic patients with ascites and in those with nephrotic syndrome. The onset of bacterial peritonitis in the absence of these predisposing conditions or other underlying cause, such as perforated viscus, is termed 'primary bacterial peritonitis', and has never been described in asthmatic patients. We present an asthmatic patient who developed primary bacterial peritonitis while receiving a leukotriene modulator in combination with prednisolone therapy. The hypothesis that leukotriene receptor blockade might predispose to the development of primary bacterial peritonitis in patients receiving steroid therapy is discussed.
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10/18. First reported case of dialysis-related peritonitis due to escherichia vulneris.

    escherichia vulneris is a recently identified environmental organism that can colonize humans and animals. To date, very few infections with E. vulneris have been reported. This is the first reported case of peritonitis due to E. vulneris in the setting of peritoneal dialysis.
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