Cases reported "Peroneal Neuropathies"

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1/23. Total innervation of the extensor digitorum brevis by the accessory deep peroneal nerve.

    We describe a patient with complete (100%) innervation of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle by the accessory deep peroneal nerve, which resulted in an erroneous diagnosis of peroneal mononeuropathy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neuropathy, deep
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2/23. Sensory potential can be preserved in severe common peroneal neuropathy.

    Neuropathy of Common peroneal nerve (CPN) is a frequent clinical condition, generally caused by compression at the fibula head. Three neurophysiological patterns were described: 1) segmental demyelination with conduction block; 2) axonal damage with loss of motor units and sensory potential; 3) a mixed pattern. We report 5 patients with foot drop in whom CPN neuropathy was identified. In 3 in spite of impressive abnormalities in various motor branches and fascicles of the nerve, the peroneus nerve sensory potential remained well preserved. Focal neuropathies can be remarkably selective in terms of motor and sensory deficits, the reason can rely on a different location of the fibres or be related to a distinct histological-biochemical constitution. A preserved SPSP should not exclude a CPN neuropathy.
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ranking = 8193.7704864133
keywords = peroneal neuropathy, neuropathy
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3/23. MRI in unexplained mononeuropathy.

    Four young patients with severe unexplained progressive mononeuropathy are described. None had a history of known trauma to the affected limb. In addition to the standard neurologic examination and electrophysiologic studies (nerve conduction studies and electromyography), all underwent neuroimaging of the involved extremity. In three patients, magnetic resonance imaging revealed intrinsic abnormalities of the appropriate nerve. The pattern or absence of magnetic resonance imaging changes directly influenced decisions about surgical exploration of the nerve in all four patients. With the advent of more sophisticated technology, magnetic resonance neurography has become a potent diagnostic tool in the evaluation of disorders of peripheral nerve and muscle.
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ranking = 4.9952479678934
keywords = neuropathy
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4/23. Common peroneal neuropathy due to surfing.

    Common peroneal neuropathy is uncommon in children and adolescents. In this population, it is usually caused by direct nerve injury at the fibular head level. Most commonly, the nerve is damaged during sports-related blunt trauma. Other etiologies such as hereditary neuropathies and bone tumors are much less frequent. In some cases, repetitive microtrauma to the peroneal nerve is felt to cause neuropathy. We describe the case of a teenager who developed common peroneal neuropathy in association with prolonged wave-surfing in the presence of weight loss.
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ranking = 12288.657630433
keywords = peroneal neuropathy, neuropathy
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5/23. A case of peroneal neuropathy-induced footdrop. Correlated and compensatory lower-extremity function.

    This article reports on the case of a man with peroneal neuropathy-induced footdrop who was seen at the authors' institution 3 years after open reduction and internal fixation of a proximal fibular fracture and a distal, spiral, oblique tibial fracture of the right leg. A comprehensive gait analysis was conducted. A significant footdrop in gait resulted in a "reverse check mark" center-of-pressure pattern, an increased transverse-plane rotation of the foot, and excessive knee and hip flexion in the sagittal plane. These objective findings documented significant dysfunction within the involved lower extremity; in addition, aberrant biomechanics were observed in structures other than the site of initial injury within both limbs.
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ranking = 10239.715484033
keywords = peroneal neuropathy, neuropathy
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6/23. peroneal nerve palsy: the role of early electromyography.

    Footdrop is rare in the newborn period. In this report, the clinical and electrophysiological features of a newborn whose peroneal neuropathy was detected in the delivery room is presented. Her first electrophysiological examination, at the 13th hour of life, revealed a peroneal nerve lesion. All findings elicited in this and subsequent examinations suggested an antenatal onset. Clinical recovery began within weeks of the birth and she was able to walk, with no residual neurological abnormality, by her first birthday. Early electrophysiological examination of a newborn with peripheral neuropathy may provide valuable information about the time of onset and pathophysiological features of the nerve lesion. In spite of the early electromyogram findings revealing severe nerve injury, a good prognosis is possible in newborns with peroneal neuropathy.
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ranking = 4096.8852432067
keywords = peroneal neuropathy, neuropathy
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7/23. Intraneural perineurioma of the common peroneal nerve. Case report and review of the literature.

    Intraneural perineurioma, or localized hypertrophic mononeuropathy (LHM), is a focal lesion that produces a slowly progressive mononeuropathy in a peripheral nerve. The authors describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance (MR) neurography characteristics, and pathological characteristics of a perineurioma involving the peroneal nerve. Although there has been much debate surrounding the cause of this lesion, a literature review supports the argument that this is a neoplastic lesion, best referred to as intraneural perineurioma. Surgical management includes excision to prevent progression of palsy and placement of a nerve graft if clinically indicated. A 28-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of progressive painless right peroneal nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance neurography revealed a right common peroneal nerve mass. At surgery, the mass was easily excised, leaving significant nerve fascicles intact. Intraoperative biopsy was not performed nor was a nerve graft placed. Pathological investigation demonstrated onion bulb-shaped whorls consistent with the appearance of intraneural perineurioma; immunochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis. A review of the literature supports the argument that perineurioma, or LHM, is a neoplastic process, making "intraneural perineurioma" the most appropriate name. The authors also demonstrate the utility of MR neurography in the identification isolated nerve tumors and review the surgical management of this lesion.
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ranking = 1.9980991871574
keywords = neuropathy
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8/23. Peroneal mononeuropathy in pediatric Hodgkin's disease.

    A 12-year-old boy with Hodgkin's disease developed left peroneal nerve palsy during combination therapy with chemotherapy and low-dose irradiation. The palsy occurred twice; around 1-2 weeks after the second administration of vincristine in the second and third COPP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and procarbazine) regimens. Without any treatment, the peroneal neuropathy completely resolved clinically three months and electromyographically six months after the onset. He used to play television games for more than 6 hours a day with the legs crossed while sitting on the bedside. Compared to adult patients, little is known about the relationship between peroneal neuropathy and systemic malignant diseases in pediatric patients. This case shows for the first time that habitual leg crossing during potentially neurotoxic chemotherapy could induce peroneal mononeuropathy in a pediatric cancer patient.
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ranking = 4100.881441581
keywords = peroneal neuropathy, neuropathy
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9/23. peroneal nerve palsy: a complication of umbilical artery catheterization in the full-term newborn of a mother with diabetes.

    Umbilical artery catheters are an essential aid in the treatment of newborn infants who have cardiopulmonary disease. However, it is well-known that umbilical artery catheterization is associated with complications. The most frequent visible problem in an umbilical line is blanching or cyanosis of part or all of a distal extremity or the buttock area resulting from either vasospasm or a thrombotic or embolic incidence. Ischemic necrosis of the gluteal region is a rare complication of umbilical artery catheterization. We report the case of a full-term infant of an insulin-dependent diabetic mother with poor blood glucose control who developed a left peroneal nerve palsy after ischemic necrosis of the gluteal region after umbilical artery catheterization. The infant was born weighing 5050 g. The mother of the infant had preexisting diabetes mellitus that was treated with insulin from the age of 14 years. The metabolic control of the mother had been unstable both before and during the pregnancy. The neonate developed respiratory distress syndrome soon after birth and was immediately transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit. Mechanical ventilation via endotracheal tube was quickly considered necessary after rapid pulmonary deterioration. Her blood glucose levels were 13 mg/dL. A 3.5-gauge umbilical catheter was inserted into the left umbilical artery for blood sampling without difficulty when the infant required 100% oxygen to maintain satisfactory arterial oxygen pressure. Femoral pulses and circulation in the lower limbs were normal immediately before and after catheterization. A radiograph, which was taken immediately, showed the tip of the catheter to be at a level between the fourth and fifth sacral vertebrae. The catheter was removed immediately. Circulation and femoral pulses were normal and no blanching of the skin was observed. Another catheter was repositioned and the tip was confirmed radiologically to be in the thoracic aorta between the sixth and seventh thoracic vertebrae. The catheter was continuously flushed with heparinized solution. Three days after umbilical arterial catheterization, bruising was observed over the left gluteal region. The catheter was immediately removed despite its correct position. Over the next few days, the bruised skin and underlying tissues became necrotic. The area affected was 3 x 4 cm in diameter, with central necrosis surrounded by a rim of dark, red skin, which, in turn, was sharply demarcated from normal skin by a narrow, pale zone. Surgical excision of the gluteal necrosis was performed, but a deep ulcer 3 cm in diameter was left. The gluteal ulcer required 1 month to heal completely with extensive scar tissue formation. Throughout this period, the infant showed active movements in all of her limbs. At 4 weeks of age deterioration of all movement below the left knee with a dropping foot was observed. Severe peroneal nerve palsy was confirmed through nerve conduction studies, and there was electromyographic evidence of degeneration of the muscles supplied by the peroneal branch of the sciatic nerve. A Doppler study, which was also conducted, revealed no vascular damage. Treatment with physiotherapy and night-splinting of the left ankle was instituted. Repeated examination and nerve conduction tests at 3 months showed slow improvement with the left peroneal nerve remaining nonexcitable. At the time of this writing, the infant is 6 months old, and muscular strength below the left knee is still weak and atrophic changes in the form of muscle-wasting are already present. The rest of her motor development is normal. In our case, gangrene of the buttocks and sciatic nerve palsy followed displacement of the tip of the catheter into the inferior gluteal artery, a main branch of the internal iliac artery supplying the gluteus maximus, the overlying skin, and the sciatic nerve. The gangrenous changes were probably caused by vascular occlusion resulting from catheter-induced vasospasm of the inferior gluteal artery. sciatic nerve palsy associated with umbilical artery catheterization has been postulated to be caused by vascular occlusion of the inferior gluteal artery. Infants of diabetic mothers may exhibit changes in coagulation factors and be at increased risk of thrombotic complications in utero and postnatally. In addition, maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased incidence of congenital abnormalities, the incidence of which is 3 to 5 times higher than that among nondiabetic mothers. Although no particular or specific abnormalities have been associated with maternal disabilities, abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, including the development of umbilical vessels, frequently occur. This complication of umbilical artery catheterization has not been widely reported. We describe the first case that refers to gluteal gangrene and peroneal nerve palsy after umbilical artery catheterization of a newborn infant of a diabetic mother with poor blood glucose control. It should be noted that there were no contributing factors except that of the displacement of the catheter into the inferior gluteal artery. We speculate that the displacement of the tip of the catheter, with no difficulty in the present case, was associated with the maldevelopment of normal branching patterns of arteries after exposure of the fetus to hyperglycemia. In conclusion, umbilical artery catheterization is possibly associated with vascular occlusion, particularly in infants of diabetic mothers. Frequent inspection after the procedure has been performed is of the utmost importance especially in these neonates who often suffer from cardiopulmonary disease and require catheterization of their umbilical artery.
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ranking = 0.00019008128426224
keywords = deep
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10/23. Pedal plexiform neurofibroma: review of the literature and case report.

    Plexiform neurofibroma typically occurs in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1, and is included in the diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis. Plexiform neurofibromas generally affect larger peripheral nerves and are uncommon in the foot and ankle. While there are several reports of large neurofibromas involving the foot, they have been described on the plantar aspect. We report the first known case of plexiform neurofibroma involving the deep peroneal nerve of the foot. A review of the literature is also presented.
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ranking = 0.00019008128426224
keywords = deep
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