Cases reported "Pharyngeal Neoplasms"

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1/118. Successful surgical treatment of a solitary parapharyngeal metastasis from thyroid cancer, using the mandibular swing-transcervical approach: report of a case.

    A 72-year-old man presented with a right parapharyngeal mass, 4 cm in diameter, which was subsequently diagnosed as a metastasis originating from papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. The parapharyngeal tumor was successfully removed by the mandibular swing-transcervical approach with pharyngeal reconstruction, performed using a buccal mucosal island flap based on the facial artery. His postoperative course was uneventful, and the preoperative clinical symptoms such as dysphagia and headaches completely resolved after surgery.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer
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2/118. lung and aero-digestive cancers in young marijuana smokers.

    Marijuana has been shown to be one of the commonly abused substances in the world, especially among teenagers and young adults. Although its addictive potential and psychomotor side-effects have been widely publicized, the issue of possible carcinogenicity is not as well perceived. Marijuana smoke contains many of the same organic and inorganic compounds that are carcinogens, co-carcinogens, or tumor promoters found in tobacco smoke. We have encountered several young marijuana users with no history of tobacco smoking or other significant risk factors who were diagnosed to have lung or other aero-digestive cancers in our practice. Although there are several experimental and epidemiological studies suggesting an association of marijuana use as a possible cause of cancers, this issue remains controversial. It is hoped that our case presentation can help to stimulate further awareness and research into this issue.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = cancer
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3/118. head and neck cancers associated with Madelung's disease.

    BACKGROUND: Madelung's disease is a rare lipodystrophy that presents with multiple fatty masses in the neck, trunk, and upper extremities. The fatty accumulation is considered a benign disease, but compression of the aerodigestive tract may occur in long-standing disease. methods: Eight Chinese patients with Madelung's disease were reviewed. All were male, aged 48 to 67 years, with a history of disease ranging from 4 to 20 years. Two of the eight patients developed aerodigestive symptoms and were subsequently found to have head and neck cancers. These two patients are described. RESULTS: The possible mechanism that may account for an increase in malignant tumors of the airway in this group of patients is the synergistic effect of smoking and alcohol abuse as risk factors for both Madelung's disease and malignant tumors of the airway. Currently it is recommended that these patients should have their fatty lesions removed surgically. The removal of fat facilitates examination of the neck for signs of cervical lymphadenopathy in malignant disease. CONCLUSIONS: patients with Madelung's disease should be followed regularly. The development of aerodigestive symptoms should be fully investigated with endoscopy and imaging. The cause of symptoms should not be attributed to fatty compression until a carcinoma of the upper airway has been excluded.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = cancer
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4/118. Clinical delivery of intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy for relapsed or second-primary head and neck cancer using a multileaf collimator with dynamic control.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Concave dose distributions generated by intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were applied to re-irradiate three patients with pharyngeal cancer. patients, MATERIALS AND methods: Conventional radiotherapy for oropharyngeal (patients 1 and 3) or nasopharyngeal (patient 2) cancers was followed by relapsing or new tumors in the nasopharynx (patients 1 and 2) and hypopharynx (patient 3). Six non-opposed coplanar intensity modulated beams were generated by combining non-modulated beamparts with intensities (weights) obtained by minimizing a biophysical objective function. Beamparts were delivered by a dynamic MLC (Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK) forced in step and shoot mode. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Median PTV-doses (and ranges) for the three patients were 73 (65-78), 67 (59-72) and 63 (48-68) Gy. Maximum point doses to brain stem and spinal cord were, respectively, 67 Gy (60% of volume below 30 Gy) and 32 Gy (97% below 10 Gy) for patient 1; 60 Gy (69% below 30 Gy) and 34 Gy (92% below 10 Gy) for patient 2 and 21 Gy (96% below 10 Gy) at spinal cord for patient 3. Maximum point doses to the mandible were 69 Gy for patient 1 and 64 Gy for patient 2 with, respectively, 66 and 92% of the volume below 20 Gy. A treatment session, using the dynamic MLC, was finished within a 15-min time slot.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = cancer
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5/118. Transmucosal fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of intraoral and intrapharyngeal lesions.

    OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for the diagnosis of neck, thyroid, and salivary gland masses is well documented. Very few reports explore the potential of an intraoral FNAB approach for the diagnosis of submucosal lesions. We describe our technique and present case examples of pertinent differential diagnostic entities. We recommend an expanded role for FNAB of the oral cavity and oropharynx. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. methods: A uniform technique was employed for transmucosal FNAB of 76 patients with intraoral masses. In applicable cases, cytology results were compared with traditional biopsy methods and permanent histopathologic specimens for accuracy. RESULTS: Our experience demonstrates the high sensitivity (93%) and specificity (86%) of intraoral FNAB when compared with biopsy by conventional means. FNAB provides distinct advantages for the cytologic diagnosis of submucosal lesions, which may be difficult to reach and adequately sample through conventional biopsy. FNAB of the tonsil and tonsillar fossa provides a safe and effective means of diagnosing both lymphoma and squamous cell cancer. Transmucosal FNAB via the mouth led to rapid diagnosis of a number of benign and malignant lesions. Applying this uniform FNAB technique, we had no significant complications. CONCLUSION: We recommend transmucosal FNAB as an effective means for highly accurate diagnosis of submucosal lesions of the oral cavity and oropharynx. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional biopsy techniques in the oral cavity may require anesthesia and may have diagnostic difficulties, particularly for submucosal lesions. Transmucosal FNAB overcomes these shortcomings by providing a minimally invasive means to rapid diagnosis of intraoral lesions.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = cancer
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6/118. Chondroid chordoma: fine-needle aspiration cytology with histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of two cases.

    Chondroid chordoma is a controversial and confusing entity that was originally described by Heffelfinger et al. (Cancer 1973; 32:410-420) as a biphasic malignant neoplasm possessing elements of both chordoma and cartilaginous tissue. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of chondroid chordoma has not been described. The aim of our investigation was to characterize the chondroid area of chondroid chordoma and to compare the FNA features with those of well-differentiated chondrosarcoma. Clival and cervical spine chondroid chordomas were studied with light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Chondroid chordomas demonstrated an epithelial nature by immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural studies. The FNA smears showed low cellularity, with loosely arranged or dispersed round cells in a myxoid background. Although the smears were similar to those of well-differentiated chondrosarcomas, they showed a positive reaction for epithelial markers. These findings reveal that chondroid chordoma is a variant of chordoma which possesses a hyaline matrix. Immunohistochemical demonstration of epithelial markers is useful to distinguish it from chondrosarcoma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 1999; 21:335-339.
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ranking = 2.3445344465975
keywords = neoplasm
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7/118. Bilateral recurrent adult rhabdomyomas of the pharyngeal wall.

    adult rhabdomyomas of the head and neck are uncommon benign skeletal muscle tumors. Only a few cases occurring in the pharyngeal wall have been described in the world literature. We present a case of recurrent bilateral rhabdomyomas in the pharynx and discuss the clinicopathological features of this lesion, comparing it to those of other neoplasms from which it must be differentiated. To our knowledge, bilaterality of this type of lesion has not been described previously. Although adult rhabdomyomas have a distinct histology, they often are mistaken for a variety of other lesions, particularly granular cell tumor.
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ranking = 2.3445344465975
keywords = neoplasm
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8/118. Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes--a soft tissue tumor with mesenchymal and neuroendocrine features. An immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and cytogenetic analysis.

    CONTEXT: Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes is a recently described biphasic neoplasm of soft tissues that shares mesenchymal and neuroendocrine features. Its morphologic structure is distinctive, with the presence of hyalinized paucicellular foci that are termed rosettes. The cells around the latter display positive immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine markers. The small number of cases described to date indicates that they tend to be localized in the extremities. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinicopathologic features of 2 unusual cases of hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes. methods AND RESULTS: One tumor was located in the prestyloid parapharyngeal space and the second in the left thigh. Both tumors were well circumscribed and surrounded by a thin capsule-like fibrous band without infiltrating projections. The rosettes were embedded in a spindle cell proliferation. Immunohistochemical stains showed positive results for S100 protein, synaptophysin, CD57, protein gene product 9.5, and neuron-specific enolase exclusively in the cells palisading the rosettes. These markers were negative in the spindle cell portions of the tumor. The latter were immunoreactive for factor xiiia, vimentin, HAM56, collagen IV, and CD68. vimentin was the only marker shared by the rosette-forming cells and the spindle cells. Ultrastructurally, the rosette-forming cells contained neurosecretory granules. This study describes the first cytogenetic analysis in this type of tumor revealing 2 cell lines, both containing a balanced translocation between chromosomes 7 and 16. Follow-up of the patients at 16 and 8 months did not disclose evidence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: These 2 new cases increase the awareness of hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes and demonstrate that it is a spindle cell neoplasm of unique cytogenetic rearrangements composed of dendritic, histiocytic, and fibroblastic cells admixed with cells that have neuroendocrine differentiation.
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ranking = 4.6890688931949
keywords = neoplasm
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9/118. Pleomorphic adenoma of the retropharyngeal space: a rare location.

    A case of an isolated pleomorphic adenoma of the retropharyngeal space is reported, this has not been documented previously in the literature. attention is drawn to the wide spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms that can potentially occur within this complex anatomical region. The importance of a systematic and logical approach to the management of such lesions is emphasized.
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ranking = 2.3445344465975
keywords = neoplasm
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10/118. Metastasis to a percutaneous gastrostomy site from head and neck cancer: radiobiologic considerations.

    BACKGROUND: The use of percutaneously placed feeding tubes has increased in recent years in an effort to maintain adequate caloric balance in patients receiving combined therapy for head and neck cancers, particularly concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. methods: We report a case of a metastasis to a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy site occurring in a patient with an advanced tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma and review the published literature regarding this subject. Radiobiologic principles were examined to explain the most likely cause of such metastases. RESULTS: Six cases of percutaneous endoscopic site metastases occurring in patients with head and neck primary tumors have been reported in the literature. The interval from performance of the procedure to development of the metastases ranged from 3 to 16 months. Tumor kinetics suggest that a significant tumor burden (10(5)-10(6) cells) would need to be present at the site to manifest a metastatic lesion in such a short time interval. CONCLUSIONS: The development of metastases at percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy sites is a relatively uncommon occurrence. Direct tumor implantation by means of instrumentation at the time of the procedure is most likely explanation for such metastases, although hematogenous seeding cannot be completely discounted. Techniques should be used so as not to disrupt the tumor bed, particularly when gross residual disease is present.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = cancer
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