Cases reported "Philadelphia Chromosome"

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11/283. Chronic myeloid leukemia with a rare variant Philadelphia translocation: t(9;22;21)(q34;q11;q22).

    A case of chronic myeloid leukemia displaying an uncommon t(21;22)(q22;q11) is reported. For the first time, this translocation has been characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). FISH, with the use of whole-chromosome painting probes and probes specific for the BCR and ABL genes, showed a three-way variant Philadelphia translocation (9;22;21)(q34;q11;q22) with a BCR/ABL fusion residing on the der(22). In addition, RT-PCR demonstrated a b2a3 BCR/ABL fusion transcript. Underlying mechanisms and prognostic implications are discussed.
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12/283. Expression of the NUP98/HOXA9 fusion transcript in the blast crisis of philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukaemia with t(7;11)(p15;p15).

    The t(7;11)(p15;p15) translocation is a recurrent aberration observed in acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) and chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML). It has been shown that the NUP98 gene at 11p15 is fused with the HOXA9 gene at 7p15 in AML with t(7;11). We report the first case with CML expressing the NUP98/HOXA9 fusion transcript. A 27-year-old Japanese man was initially diagnosed as in the chronic phase of Philadelphia-positive CML. At the diagnosis of myeloid blast crisis, the karyotype evolved to 46, XY, t(7;11)(p15;p15), t(9;22)(q34;q11). reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction identified the NUP98/HOXA9 transcript, suggesting that the NUP98/HOXA9 fusion protein could play a critical role in the progression to blast crisis.
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13/283. A philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia of donor origin after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase.

    We report here a case of donor cell leukemia in a female Ph-positive CML patient who received an allogeneic BMT from her HLA-identical brother in the chronic phase and subsequently developed a donor cell Ph-positive ALL. The number of cases of donor cell leukemia after BMT so far reported is less than 20 and in this case, as in the first cases reported by Marmont et aland McCane et al, the original leukemia and donor cell leukemia share the presence of a Ph chromosome. Furthermore, we analyzed the patient during different stages of her disease by RT-PCR and determined the type of bcr-abl junctions (M bcr-abl junction; b3a2 transcript, p210) in both the recipient and donor cell leukemia.
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14/283. Molecular cytogenetics investigation of the telomeres in a case of Philadelphia positive B-ALL with a single telomere expansion.

    We have investigated a single telomere expansion in a case of acute lymphoblastic B-cell leukemia (B-ALL), where half of the cells in the bone marrow sample appeared with a philadelphia chromosome. Comparing telomere sizes in Philadelphia-positive versus -negative cells, we found generally shorter telomeres in the Philadelphia-positive cells, but with an expansion of the telomere on the long arm of one chromosome 11 homologue. This expansion was also found in a minority of Philadelphia-negative cells. The telomeres in these cells were of the same overall size as the telomeres in the Philadelphia-negative cells without the 11q expansion. Together, these findings suggest that the order of events was: 11q telomere expansion, Philadelphia translocation, overall telomere shortening. The expanded 11q telomere contained the standard telomeric (AGGGTT)(n) repeat, but also variant repeat sequences. The single telomere expansion suggests a non-telomerase mechanism behind the expansion which may also explain the presence of variant repeats in the expanded telomere. The present case illustrates that telomere changes may occur at only some chromosome ends in a subset of cells. To reveal such changes, telomere morphology should be studied with in situ methodology.
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15/283. A de novo philadelphia chromosome-positive acute mixed-lineage leukemia with both major and minor BCR/ABL mRNA transcripts.

    A patient with a philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive acute mixed-lineage leukemia (AMLL) expressing both major and minor BCR/ABL mRNA transcripts is described. Phenotypic analysis of the leukemic blasts revealed positivity for both myeloid and B-cell lineages. Southern blot analysis showed a rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene. reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the expression of both major and minor BCR/ABL mRNA transcripts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AMLL expressing both major and minor BCR/ABL mRNA transcripts and rearrangement of the IgH gene.
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16/283. Triple Philadelphia chromosomes with major-bcr rearrangement in hypotriploid erythroleukaemia.

    The Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is observed in approximately 1% of patients with acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML), especially subtypes M1 and M2 in the French-American-British classification. We describe here a cytogenetic and molecular investigation of a rare case with Ph-positive AML M6 (erythroleukaemia). A 63-yr-old woman was diagnosed as having erythroleukaemia. Leukaemic cells were positive for CD4 and CD7 as well as CD13, CD33, CD34 and HLA-DR. They were analyzed by G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Southern blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses. The karyotypes at diagnosis were as follows: 61, XX, -X, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, t(9;22)(q34;q11)x 2, -15, -16, -17, -18, 19, 21, 22 [3]/61, idem, -22, der(22)t(9;22) [36]. FISH with BCR/ABL probes showed that 39% and 57% of interphase nuclei had double and triple BCR/ABL fusion signals, respectively. Chromosome analysis in complete remission showed a normal karyotype in all 20 metaphases, confirming the diagnosis as Ph positive-acute leukaemia. FISH at relapse showed that 92% of interphase nuclei had triple fusion signals. Rearrangement of major breakpoint cluster region (M-bcr) in the BCR gene and coexpression of p210-type (b2a2) and p190-type (e1a2) BCR/ABL fusion transcripts due to alternative splicing were also detected. We conclude that clonal evolution from double to triple Ph chromosomes may be implicated in the disease progression. Considering other two reported cases, Ph-positive erythroleukaemia appears to be correlated with coexpression of myeloid/T-lymphoid markers and hyperdiploidy with double or triple Ph chromosomes, although breakpoints in the BCR gene are heterogenous.
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17/283. Chronic neutrophilic leukemia with acute myeloblastic transformation.

    We report a rare case of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) which terminated in acute myeloblastic transformation 3 years after the onset of the disease. The increased leukocytes were mainly neutrophils at various maturational stages until 1 month before transformation without dysplastic hematopoietic cells or other myeloproliferative disorders. Repeated analyses for the philadelphia chromosome (Ph1), rearrangement of the BCR gene or chimeric BCR/ABL mRNA, major, minor and mu, were negative. Genomic analysis of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor did not reveal any abnormality. The clinical manifestations were characterized by hyperleukocyte syndrome with respiratory distress and ischemic legs with gangrene.
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18/283. Need for an accurate molecular diagnosis to assess the donor origin of leukemia relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: leukemia relapse occurring in donor cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been reported in rare cases. cytogenetic analysis and molecular probing of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) have been used to confirm this unusual event in the few cases so far reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that extensive molecular characterization of leukemic cells at diagnosis and relapse may be necessary to avoid many technical pitfalls possibly leading to an erroneous diagnosis of leukemia relapse in donor cells after allogeneic transplantation. DESIGN AND methods: We report the case of a 49- year old man who received an allogeneic transplantation from his HLA-identical sister because of BCR-ABL acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). After having achieved complete hematologic and molecular remission, two years later an overt leukemia relapse occurred with cytogenetic findings suggesting a leukemia relapse in donor cells. The donor or patient origin of leukemic cells at relapse was further investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) karyotyping, reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of BCR-ABL chimeric transcripts, PCR amplification of several VNTRs and the y chromosome-specific DYS14 sequence and finally by amplification, cloning and sequencing of the CDRIII region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene. RESULTS: At the time of relapse, conventional and FISH karyotyping revealed the presence of a Phl chromosome and a female karyotype in all the 25 metaphases analyzed and PCR amplification of the y chromosome-specific DYS14 sequence was negative. Moreover, the molecular evaluation of hematopoietic chimerism performed by the NZ-22 VNTR allowed us to demonstrate that at the time of relapse, a consistent proportion of hematopoietic cells was of donor origin. However, the molecular cloning and sequencing of the CDRIII region of the immunoglobuin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement in leukemic blasts at diagnosis and relapse demonstrated their identity thus formally proving the patient origin of both leukemic clones. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: While the simplest interpretation of the apparent female karyotype at relapse is the consequence of a loss of the y chromosome which in leukemic blasts took place along with duplication of an X-chromosome, this case strongly emphasizes the need for accurate and extensive molecular characterization to prove the donor origin of a leukemia relapse after allogeneic transplantation.
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keywords = chromosome
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19/283. Variant intra philadelphia translocation with rearrangement of BCR-ABL and ABL-BCR within the same chromosome in a patient with cALL.

    A unique variant Philadelphia translocation accompanied by the loss of the short arm of chromosome 9 in a 32-year-old female with common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) is described. Furthermore, supernumerary chromosome 8 material was found as an insertion into the long arm of chromosome 2 and/or as ring chromosomes in addition to two normal chromosomes 8. The chromosomal abnormalities were identified by combined conventional chromosome banding analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The BCR-ABL rearrangement was confirmed by FISH and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies. Possible mechanisms leading to this variant intra Philadelphia translocation are discussed. The aberrations found have prognostic implications, because 9p anomalies confer an adverse effect to the already poor prognosis of Philadelphia-positive ALL.
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20/283. Three cases of typical aplastic anaemia associated with a philadelphia chromosome.

    We report three cases of typical aplastic anaemia (AA) associated with a philadelphia chromosome. This translocation was detected at the time of diagnosis of AA (one patient) and when overt leukaemia was diagnosed (two patients: one chronic myeloid leukaemia and one acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) after AA therapy and recovery of blood counts. We discuss the literature arguments about considering some cases of AA as preleukaemic disorders and suggest that our cases illustrate the association of AA with a clonal malignant disorder. We conclude that cytogenetic analysis is necessary at diagnosis of AA or after recovery of blood counts.
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