Cases reported "Philadelphia Chromosome"

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1/6. Pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia with b3a2 (p210) and e1a2 (p190) BCR-ABL fusion transcripts relapsing as chronic myelogenous leukemia with a less differentiated b3a2 (p210) clone.

    The philadelphia chromosome translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11) may give rise to different BCR/ABL fusion mRNAs due to different genomic breakpoints and alternative splicing. The e1a2, b2a2 or b3a2 and c3a2 fusion mRNAs encode distinct fusion proteins (p190, p210 and p230, respectively), which are associated with different forms of leukemogenesis in humans and animal models. Our patient presented with acute pre-B cell lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with normal cytogenetics. After 3 years of standard ALL therapy, he relapsed with t(9;22)-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Retrospective molecular analyses of the pre-treatment pre-B cell ALL sample showed the b3a2 (p210) and e1a2 (p190) BCR/ABL fusion transcripts. Only the b3a2 (p210) transcript was detected at relapse. Southern and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) analyses of the presentation and relapse samples revealed an identical BCR rearrangement in both samples. However, only the ALL sample harbored an IgH gene rearrangement. These findings show a clonal relationship between the more differentiated pre-B cell and less differentiated CML clones and that the p210 and p190 fusion mRNAs were alternatively spliced from a single genomic breakpoint. Our patient's unusual molecular findings provide circumstantial evidence that the p190 protein may promote a more differentiated phenotype in a comparatively less differentiated p210-transformed precursor cell.
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2/6. Triple Philadelphia chromosomes with major-bcr rearrangement in hypotriploid erythroleukaemia.

    The Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is observed in approximately 1% of patients with acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML), especially subtypes M1 and M2 in the French-American-British classification. We describe here a cytogenetic and molecular investigation of a rare case with Ph-positive AML M6 (erythroleukaemia). A 63-yr-old woman was diagnosed as having erythroleukaemia. Leukaemic cells were positive for CD4 and CD7 as well as CD13, CD33, CD34 and HLA-DR. They were analyzed by G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Southern blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses. The karyotypes at diagnosis were as follows: 61, XX, -X, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, t(9;22)(q34;q11)x 2, -15, -16, -17, -18, 19, 21, 22 [3]/61, idem, -22, der(22)t(9;22) [36]. FISH with BCR/ABL probes showed that 39% and 57% of interphase nuclei had double and triple BCR/ABL fusion signals, respectively. Chromosome analysis in complete remission showed a normal karyotype in all 20 metaphases, confirming the diagnosis as Ph positive-acute leukaemia. FISH at relapse showed that 92% of interphase nuclei had triple fusion signals. Rearrangement of major breakpoint cluster region (M-bcr) in the BCR gene and coexpression of p210-type (b2a2) and p190-type (e1a2) BCR/ABL fusion transcripts due to alternative splicing were also detected. We conclude that clonal evolution from double to triple Ph chromosomes may be implicated in the disease progression. Considering other two reported cases, Ph-positive erythroleukaemia appears to be correlated with coexpression of myeloid/T-lymphoid markers and hyperdiploidy with double or triple Ph chromosomes, although breakpoints in the BCR gene are heterogenous.
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3/6. Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia with multiple subclones including duplication of the philadelphia chromosome and Abelson oncogene.

    A case of Philadelphia (Ph)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with multiple subclones including duplication of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and of the Abelson oncogene (ABL1) is reported. Cytogenetically, two different rearrangements of chromosome 9 not involved in the t(9;22) were found in two subclones. In one subclone the normal 9 was lost and replaced by an acrocentric marker, which contained an additional copy of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction detected the fusion transcripts p210 (e13a2 junction) and p190 (e1a2 junction), whereas fluorescence in situ hybridization showed the major BCR-ABL1 junction in both Ph chromosomes, strongly suggesting that the presence of the p210 and p190 proteins in this case was due to mechanisms of alternative or mis-splicing at the transcriptional level. The second subclone showed the classic t(9;22) plus an add(9)(p24) containing two copies of the ABL1 gene. Other molecular events involving chromosome 9 were a monoallelic loss of JAK2 in both subclones and an additional loss of P15/P16 in the subclone with the acrocentric marker bearing the extra Ph chromosome.
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4/6. Genomic deletions on other chromosomes involved in variant t(9;22) chronic myeloid leukemia cases.

    The Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is the cytogenetic hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and is observed in more than 90% of CML cases. At diagnosis, in 5-10% of CML patients the Ph chromosome is derived from variant translocations other than the standard t(9;22). Deletions adjacent to the translocation junction on the derivative chromosome 9 were recently described by different groups. The deletions may identify a subgroup with a worse prognosis. The presence of similar deletions on the third derivative other than the 9 and 22 chromosomes in CML with variant translocation has never been investigated. We studied three cases of CML variants showing relatively large deletions on the third chromosome involved in the translocation. Known tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) or genes involved in signal transduction and in the modulation of cell proliferation were found to be located inside these deleted regions. As an alternative to Knudson's two-hit model, the "haplo-insufficiency" hypothesis suggests that the deletion of a single allele of a TSG can play an important role in tumor progression. Our findings suggest that great attention should be paid to the molecular cytogenetic characterization of variant t(9;22) CML patients to unveil fully the biological heterogeneity of CML.
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5/6. Durable molecular complete remission induced by low-dose imatinib plus low-dose interferon alpha in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukaemia.

    A 50-year-old male was diagnosed with chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) in chronic phase in March 2000. He was treated initially with hydroxyurea, administered orally. This was changed to interferon alpha (IFN) 5 million units (5 MIU) subcutaneously daily in May 2000; complete cytogenetic response was achieved 11 months later. IFN dosage was reduced to 5 MIU, alternate days, in June 2001 and a cytogenetic relapse occurred 3 months later. Since April 2002, he has received IFN 5 MIU three times weekly in combination with imatinib 200 mg/day. The philadelphia chromosome disappeared from his peripheral blood cells in July 2002 and a complete molecular response was achieved in January 2003. Serial molecular studies between January 2004 and January 2005 showed no detectable major BCR/ABL chimeric transcript. Grade 2 neutropenia and grade 1 non-haematological adverse effects have been observed. This case report suggests the combination of low-dose imatinib and IFN would be tolerable and effective for CML patients in chronic phase.
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6/6. Variant Ph translocations in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Variant translocations were found in eight of 142 consecutive patients with Ph-positive, chronic myeloid leukemia encountered in our laboratory during the last decade. Two patients had simple, two-way variant translocations: t(17;22)(p13;q11) and t(16;22)(q24;q11). Both of these patients had an additional translocation involving chromosomes #9: t(7;9)(q22;q34) and t(9;17)(q34;q21), respectively. Complex variant translocations were found in four cases: t(2;9;22)(p23q12;q34;q11), t(3;9;22)(p21;q34;q11), t(9;12;22)(q34;q13;q11q13), and t(13;17;22)(p11;p11q21;q11). In two cases, the only discernable cytogenetic aberration was del(22)(q11). A review of the chromosomal breakpoints involved in this series and in 185 cases of variant Ph translocations previously reported in the literature reveals that a disproportionately large number of breakpoints are located in light-staining regions of G-banded chromosomes. Furthermore, the breakpoints in simple variant translocations are more often located in terminal chromosomal regions, whereas, the breakpoints in complex translocations typically affect nonterminal bands. No obvious correlation was detected between variant Ph translocation breakpoints and either fragile sites, oncogene locations, or consistent chromosome breakpoints in other malignancies.
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