Cases reported "photophobia"

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1/47. Use of mechanical thrombolysis via microballoon percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for the treatment of acute dural sinus thrombosis: case presentation and technical report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Although conventional superselective chemical thrombolysis is frequently successful for the treatment of severe acute dural sinus thrombosis, the technique has limitations and risks. This prompted us to develop a supplemental technique for achieving more rapid recanalization, using coronary microballoon percutaneous transluminal angioplasty catheters. We describe a successful application of this technique and technology that has not been previously reported. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: After several days of severe headaches, photophobia, and vomiting, a 29-year-old woman presented with rapidly progressive neurological deficits secondary to complete occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and right transverse/sigmoid sinus complex. Owing to her rapid neurological decline, she was referred for emergency endovascular intervention. TECHNIQUE: Initially, superselective chemical thrombolysis of the SSS was performed using urokinase. However, because of the extensive nature of the thrombus and lack of initial therapeutic response, we elected to attempt mechanical thrombolysis with various coronary percutaneous transluminal angioplasty microballoon catheters. This was accomplished by initial coaxial positioning of the device into an occluded segment, followed by gentle inflation and retraction of the device along the course of the right transverse sinus and/or SSS. These maneuvers were repeated with balloons of increasingly large diameter. Near-complete restoration of venous outflow was obtained within the SSS with preferential runoff into the left transverse sinus. The right transverse sinus was only partially recanalized. Despite the patient's rapid neurological decline on presentation, she experienced a dramatic clinical recovery with near-complete reversal of neurological deficits within 24 hours of intervention. CONCLUSION: This report shows the feasibility of performing safe and effective mechanical thrombolysis with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty coronary balloon microcatheters within the major dural sinuses. This technique can probably accelerate clot disruption and thrombolysis, possibly resulting in a more rapid restoration of venous flow. ( info)

2/47. Resolution of MRI abnormalities of the oculomotor nerve in childhood ophthalmoplegic migraine.

    ophthalmoplegic migraine is an uncommon disorder, usually starting in older childhood. Its physiopathology remains obscure and diagnosis is reliant on clinical grounds and exclusion of other disorders. We report four cases of childhood ophthalmoplegic migraine, one of them starting in infancy. association with other types of migraine is common. Two of the three patients studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed enhancement and enlargement of the cisternal portion of the oculomotor nerve, which spontaneously resolved after 2 and 4 years, respectively. Persistence of clinical recurrences was associated with long-lasting presence of the MRI finding, and possibly with mild sequelae. These radiological abnormalities suggest a common physiopathological mechanism with other inflammatory diseases, except for a benign evolution which, added to its specific anatomic site, seems to be the only neuroradiological marker, besides normality, in ophthalmoplegic migraine. The very long potential duration of MRI changes and the scarcity of clinical episodes make feasible its incident discovery once the migraine attack has become a remote memory. ( info)

3/47. ichthyosis follicularis with alopecia and photophobia in a mother and daughter.

    A mother and daughter having ichthyosis follicularis with alopecia and photophobia (IFAP) are reported, with histopathological and electron microscopic findings. We have followed the clinical course of the mother for 26 years since she was 5 years old, and the daughter since birth. They have had almost all the classical and some of the minor symptoms of IFAP, including severe photophobia, extensive non-inflammatory follicular hyperkeratosis, generalized non-scarring alopecia, hyperkeratosis of the extensor aspect of the four extremities, nail deformity and recurrent cheilitis. In addition, their facial appearance greatly resembles that of previously reported patients. A consistent feature in the mother was florid keratotic inflammatory eruptions on the genital region during each of her pregnancies, which rapidly improved after the delivery. skin biopsy of the genital lesion showed marked acanthosis with dyskeratosis and spongiotic changes. The electron microscopic examination of diseased skin showed damaged desmosomes with spongiosis. No obvious changes were found in normal appearing skin. ( info)

4/47. A sighting of orbital pseudotumor.

    A 39-year-old woman developed bilateral proptosis, photophobia, and pain with extraocular movements over the course of 5 days. Her findings initially were ocular pain and photophobia which progressed to periorbital edema and nasal discharge ultimately resulting in proptosis with vertical globe displacement and decreased visual acuity. She was diagnosed with corneal abrasion and sinusitis respectively during two initial emergency department visits. On her third visit to the emergency department within 4 days, she developed acute visual deficits. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with orbital pseudotumor after computed tomography scan revealed inflammation of orbital structures bilaterally. ( info)

5/47. Atrichia, ichthyosis, follicular hyperkeratosis, chronic candidiasis, keratitis, seizures, mental retardation and inguinal hernia: a severe manifestation of IFAP syndrome?

    A boy with congenital atrichia, ichthyosis follicular, keratitis, cutaneous infections and a huge inguinal hernia, but without deafness is reported. We believe it represents a new case of a rare X-linked recessive syndrome known as ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia, photophobia syndrome (IFAP). The differential diagnosis from keratitis ichthyosis deafness is discussed. The cutaneous infections seen in our case suggest the possibility of considering a genetic link between these syndromes. ( info)

6/47. Phototherapeutic keratectomy for Schnyder's crystalline corneal dystrophy.

    PURPOSE: To describe the treatment of Schnyder's crystalline dystrophy (SCD) with excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK). methods: Chart review of three patients (four eyes) with SCD treated with PTK between March 1992 and December 1998. Pre- and posttreatment visual acuity, subjective glare, photophobia, manifest refraction, ultrasound pachymetry, hyperopic shift, and biomicroscopic findings were studied. Brightness acuity testing (BAT) was evaluated in two eyes. RESULTS: Four eyes were treated during the study period. The average best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved from 20/175 to 20/40 under bright conditions. All patients reported subjective improvement in glare and photophobia. No visually significant recurrence was observed during the follow-up period which ranged from seven months to three years. The mean spherical equivalent refractive shift was 3.28 diopter (D). One patient developed irregular astigmatism from an eccentric ablation. No vision threatening complications were observed. CONCLUSION: PTK can be effective at improving visual symptoms in patients with SCD. It can be a useful therapeutic alternative to lamellar or penetrating keratoplasty in these patients. ( info)

7/47. Diffuse lamellar keratitis induced by trauma 6 months after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    This case report illustrates an unusual presentation of diffuse lamellar keratitis triggered by a foreign body striking the eye 6 months after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The etiology of diffuse lamellar keratitis is unclear. The infiltrate within the plane of the flap after removal of the foreign body supports the theory that diffuse lamellar keratitis is an inflammatory reaction. ( info)

8/47. IFAP syndrome "plus" seizures, mental retardation, and callosal hypoplasia.

    ichthyosis follicularis, congenital alopecia, and photophobia are typical features of a rare X-linked recessive disorder termed ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia syndrome. A 3-year-old male with these findings and severe growth failure, mental retardation, generalized seizures, vascularizing keratitis, nail anomalies, inguinal hernia, and a normal chromosome constitution is presented. Two maternal male relatives were affected by the same condition. magnetic resonance imaging revealed corpus callosum hypoplasia not described at present. Syndromes with alopecia, seizures, and mental retardation are analyzed on the basis of genetic and clinical results. ( info)

9/47. Successful cognitive-behavioral habituation training toward photophobia in photogenic partial seizures.

    We report on the cognitive-behavioral treatment of a 12-year-old boy with photogenic partial seizures with secondary generalization who had developed phobic avoidant behavior toward all kinds of situations with potential photostimulation, leading to serious impairments of life quality. Based on a behavioral analysis of seizure and anxiety reaction, a habituation training (systematic desensitization procedure) was developed and performed, while maintaining protection against seizures with antiepileptic pharmacotherapy. The treatment was to gradually increase exposure to computer monitor and television screen photostimulation, closely adjusted to the level of subjective distress and tolerance. In addition to exercising control of photogenic input by regulating the monitor control button, rapid relaxation and imagery techniques were taught and applied as countermeasures at the onset of seizure precipitants. The treatment resulted in complete remission of phobic anxieties and responses and may also have facilitated ongoing seizure control after termination of antiepileptic medication. ( info)

10/47. Abnormal activation in the visual cortex after corneal refractive surgery for myopia: demonstration by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    OBJECTIVE: To try to correlate subjective photophobic symptoms with visual pathway modifications (from the retinal image to the visual cortex) after refractive surgery by exploring brain activation on photic stimulation. DESIGN: Noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Four subjects reporting discomfort produced by luminance (glare, halos, starbursts, or a combination thereof) in one eye after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) were enrolled. The contralateral myopic eye (control) had no visual impairment and had undergone LASIK without complications or had not had previous surgery. methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during photic stimulation, delivered by an optical fiber, of the affected and unaffected eyes. RESULTS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging provided evidence that most subjective visual symptoms correlated with anatomic flap abnormalities are associated with a higher signal increase in the visual association cortices compared with a nonsymptomatic eye. CONCLUSIONS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the visual cortex may help in exploring the mechanisms involved in glare effects after refractive surgery. ( info)
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