Cases reported "Pick Disease of the Brain"

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1/4. frontal lobe dementia with novel tauopathy: sporadic multiple system tauopathy with dementia.

    We present a novel tauopathy in a patient with a 10-yr history of progressive frontal lobe dementia and a negative family history. autopsy revealed mild atrophy of frontal and parietal lobes and severe atrophy of the temporal lobes. There were occasional filamentous tau-positive inclusions, but more interesting were numerous distinctive globular neuronal and glial tau-positive inclusions in both gray and white matter of the neocortex. Affected subcortical regions included substantia nigra, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and cerebellar dentate nucleus, in a distribution similar to progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), but without significant accompanying neuronal loss or gliosis. Predominantly straight filaments were detected by electron microscopy (EM), while other inclusions were similar to fingerprint bodies. No twisted ribbons were detected. Immuno-EM studies revealed that only the filamentous inclusions were composed of tau. immunoblotting of sarkosyl-insoluble tau revealed 2 major bands of 64 and 68 kDa. Blotting analysis after dephosphorylation revealed predominantly 4-repeat tau. sequence analysis of tau revealed that there were no mutations in either exons 9-13 or the adjacent intronic sequences. The unique cortical tau pathology in this case of sporadic multiple system tauopathy with dementia adds a new pathologic profile to the spectrum of tauopathies.
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ranking = 1
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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2/4. frontotemporal dementia with co-occurrence of astrocytic plaques and tufted astrocytes, and severe degeneration of the cerebral white matter: a variant of corticobasal degeneration?

    We report two patients who exhibited frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with unusual neuropathological features. The ages of the patients at death were 65 and 67 years, the disease durations were 6 and 5 years, and the clinical diagnoses were Pick's disease and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), respectively. At autopsy, both cases exhibited neuropathological findings compatible with those of CBD, including atrophy of the frontal and parietal lobes, neuronal loss and gliosis in the cortical and subcortical regions, and presence of cortical ballooned neurons and astrocytic plaques (APs). In both cases, immunoblotting of insoluble tau exhibited the pattern of selective accumulation of four-repeat tau, a finding that is also compatible with CBD. However, severe degeneration was evident in the frontal and parietal white matter in both cases. Moreover, a striking finding was the widespread presence in the affected cortex of tufted astrocytes (TAs), which are characteristic of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Neither co-occurrence of APs and TAs nor severe degeneration of the cerebral white matter is a feature of either CBD or PSP. No mutations were found in the tau gene in either case. In conclusion, the possibility that these two cases represent a new neuropathological phenotype of non-familial FTD rather than simply a variant of CBD cannot be completely excluded.
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ranking = 1
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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3/4. frontotemporal dementia: one disease, or many?: probably one, possibly two.

    Accumulating evidence suggest that frontotemporal dementia is best viewed as a clinical syndrome even though there are distinct presentations of the behavioral variety, progressive aphasia, semantic dementia, corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy. Similarly the pathology should be regarded as a spectrum even though histological varieties are distinguished. More than half of FTD pathology is associated with ubiquitin positive and tau negative inclusions that are common in ALS. However the majority of FTD cases do not have ALS clinically and relatively few ALS cases develop FTD. The pathological and biochemical varieties can be dichotomized as tau positive and tau negative pathology and biochemistry. The genetics of the tau positive variety is associated with tau mutations and so far the tau negative variety is not, although some are linked to chromosome-17 also. There is a corresponding clinical dichotomy combining the behavioral variety of FTD presentation with semantic dementia and usually ubiquitin positive tau negative pathology on one hand and the association of primary progressive aphasia and cortical basal degeneration/PSP syndrome with tau positive pathology on the other. The overlap between them is too great to establish two separate diseases.
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ranking = 1
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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4/4. Pick's disease with Pick bodies combined with progressive supranuclear palsy without tuft-shaped astrocytes: a clinical, neuroradiologic and pathological study of an autopsied case.

    We report clinical, neuroradiologic features, and neuropathologic findings of a 76-year-old man with coexistent Pick's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. The patient presented with loss of recent memory, abnormal behavior and change in personality at the age of 60. The symptoms were progressive. Three years later, repetitive or compulsive behavior became prominent. About 9 years after onset, he had difficulty moving and became bedridden because of a fracture of his left leg. His condition gradually deteriorated and he developed mutism and became vegetative. The patient died from pneumonia 16 years after the onset of symptoms. Serial MRI scans showed progressive cortex atrophy, especially in the bilateral frontal and temporal lobes. Macroscopic inspection showed severe atrophy of the whole brain, including cerebrum, brainstem and cerebellum. Microscopic observations showed extensive superficial spongiosis and severe neuronal loss with gliosis in the second and third cortical layers in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortex. There were Pick cells and argyrophilic Pick bodies, which were tau- and ubiquitin-positive in neurons of layers II-III of the above-mentioned cortex. Numerous argyrophilic Pick bodies were observed in the hippocampus, especially in the dentate fascia. In addition, moderate to severe loss of neurons was found with gliosis and a lot of Gallyas/tau-positive globus neurofibrillary tangles in the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus, substantia nigra, locus coeruleus and dentate nucleus. Numerous thorned-astrocytes and coiled bodies but no-tuft shaped astrocytes were noted in the basal ganglion, brainstem and cerebellar white matter. In conclusion, these histopathological features were compatible with classical Pick's disease and coexistence with progressive supranuclear palsy without tuft-shaped astrocytes.
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ranking = 6
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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