Cases reported "Pick Disease Of The Brain"

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1/40. KP1 expression of ghost Pick bodies, amyloid P-positive astrocytes and selective nigral degeneration in early onset Picks disease.

    We present a patient with early-onset Pick's disease in which selective nigral degeneration, KP1 expression of ghost Pick bodies and amyloid P-positive astrocytes were found. We also review the literature on early-onset Pick's disease. A 34-year-old man showed personality change including stereotypical behavior. muscle rigidity and spasticity developed later, and he died twelve years after the onset of his illness. The brain showed lobar cerebral atrophy prominent in the temporal lobe, and to a lesser degree in the prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex. The substantia nigra displayed profound degeneration whereas the head of the caudate nucleus and the putamen were not so seriously affected because the neurons were preserved and only slight astrocytic proliferation was seen. Many Pick bodies were found in the hippocampal formation, and ballooned neurons (Pick cells) were dispersed throughout the cerebral cortex, subcortical grey matter and hippocampal formation. The affected white matter exhibited severe fibrillary gliosis, and numerous astrocytes positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and microglial cells positive for CR3/43 were found in the atrophied cortical lesions. The intraneuronal Pick bodies expressed ubiquitin, neurofilament and tau, and KP1 distinctly stained ghost Pick bodies. Tau-positive astrocytes were found in the striatum, hippocampal formation, pontine tegmentum, substantia nigra and affected frontotemporal cortices. These astrocytes were also positive for amyloid P. Extensive search of the literature on early-onset Pick's disease disclosed only a few cases with selective nigral degeneration, and we failed to find any differences in duration, progression of the illness and the extent of subcortical gray matter involvement between cases of early-onset and presenile onset of Pick' s disease. We conclude that the striatopallidal and nigral system can be affected independently in Pick's disease and report new immunohistochemical findings. ( info)

2/40. A case of sporadic Pick disease with onset at 27 years.

    BACKGROUND: Pick disease is an uncommon cause of dementia in middle age, and young-onset cases have rarely been reported. SETTING: A specialist hospital. PATIENT: Patient with onset of cognitive impairment at the age of 27 years whose cerebral biopsy specimen demonstrated Pick cells and tau-positive Pick bodies. CONCLUSION: Pick disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dementia in young adults. ( info)

3/40. depression in the early stages of Pick's disease.

    To better understand the nature of the symptoms of depression in the early stages of Pick's disease, we performed a retrospective study of the medical records of eight patients who were originally treated for major depressive disorders before being clinically diagnosed with Pick's disease. Six of the eight manifested psychomotor retardation and social withdrawal, seven of the eight were agitated and five of the eight showed hyperbulia too. However, only two of the eight showed melancholia or physical symptoms such as insomnia or loss of appetite. All patients were treated with antidepressants but these were not effective in relieving the symptoms of depression. The data we gathered in this study will be useful in the future for distinguishing between Pick's disease-related depression (in the early stages of the disease) and major depression. ( info)

4/40. Semantic dementia with ubiquitin-positive tau-negative inclusion bodies.

    Three cases are reported with dementia and ubiquitin-positive but tau-negative inclusion bodies. All patients had a semantic dementia and the clinical details of two of these have been published as the first description of a selective semantic memory impairment. The original diagnosis had been of Pick's disease based on frontotemporal atrophy, but re-examination has revealed ubiquitin-positive but tau-negative inclusions as well as neurites in the frontotemporal cortices and ubiquitin-positive, intracytoplasmic inclusions in the granule cells of the dentate fascia. These inclusions are identical to those reported in association with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (motor neuron disease), but none were seen in brainstem or spinal cord motor neurons. ( info)

5/40. Familial frontotemporal dementia with a P301L tau mutation in japan.

    We have reported the family line with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in japan. This family line has so far included four patients. Patient II-1 (man) had a 10 year history of slowly progressive personality and behavioral changes and died at the age of 56. His neuropathological examination showed severe atrophy of the bilateral frontal and temporal cortices with neuronal loss, gliosis and superficial spongiosis. Pick bodies were not found. The neuropathological diagnosis was atypical Pick's disease without Pick bodies or Pick-type in FTD. Patient III-2 is patient II-1's oldest daughter and was taken ill with personality change at the age of 52. She died at the age of 68. Patient III-4 is patient II-1's second daughter. Her onset with strange speech and behavior was at the age of 59. Patient III-5 is patient II-1's oldest son. He also had onset with personality change at the age of 54 and had the P301L mutation in tau. In all III generation cases CT/MRI revealed circumscribed frontotemporal atrophy. Patient III-5's PET/SPECT showed signs of hypoperfusion or hypometabolism in the bilateral frontotemporal areas. This is the first report of familial FTD with the P301L mutation in japan. ( info)

6/40. Massive impairment in executive functions with partial preservation of other cognitive functions: the case of a young patient with severe degeneration of the prefrontal cortex.

    Historical bases for the special role of the prefrontal cortex are outlined and the case of a 27-year-old woman with massive bilateral prefrontal damage of unknown etiology is then described. frontal lobe degeneration was repeatedly examined with magnetic resonance imaging and fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography and was found to include both orbital and dorsolateral aspects of the frontal lobes. While the degeneration initially measured was limited to portions of the orbital, medial and dorsolateral parts of both frontal lobes, with right-sided predominance, a second brain scan 15 months later revealed massive shrinkage of both frontal lobes, together with additional involvement of the posterior association cortices. The patient had completed her high-school education and had superior verbal long-term memory, normal short-term memory, and normal priming, but manifested grossly deficient scores in various frontal lobe-sensitive tests. Though a number of neurological examinations were performed, no plausible cause for the damage was established. ( info)

7/40. Combined semantic dementia and apraxia in a patient with frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    In this study we report neuropsychological and brain-imaging findings in a patient with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. brain imaging using registration of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET data to three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging showed atrophy and highly significant hypometabolism of the left temporal lobe and both frontal lobes. Volumetric measurements of the hippocampi/amygdala showed a reduction in volume of 25% on the left compared to right within cortical areas. Neuropsychological testing revealed semantic dementia with severe anomia as well as apraxia with impairment of both recognition and production of motor acts. The implications of this case of early manifestation of frontotemporal lobar degeneration for our knowledge of dementia are discussed. ( info)

8/40. Pick's disease is associated with mutations in the tau gene.

    Recently, mutations within the tau gene have been associated with some familial forms of frontotemporal dementia. To investigate whether tau gene mutations are also associated with Pick's disease, we analyzed the tau gene in 30 cases of pathologically confirmed Pick's disease. Two coding mutations were identified in separate cases of Pick's disease. A glycine-to-arginine mutation at codon 389 was detected in 1 case and a lysine-to-threonine mutation at codon 257 was identified in another. Analysis of dephosphorylated tau from the brain of the patient with the codon 389 mutation revealed a prominent band representing tau, with four microtubule-binding domains and no amino terminal inserts. This is in contrast to Pick's disease without any tau gene mutations, which consist of tau with mainly three microtubule-binding domains and only a trace of tau, with four microtubule-binding domains. Functional analysis of tau with these two mutations demonstrated a reduced ability of tau to promote microtubule assembly. Surprisingly, these mutations increased tau's susceptibility to calpain I digestion, suggesting that this feature may be related to the formation of a Pick type of histology. Moreover, these data suggest that Pick's disease is not a separate entity but part of the frontotemporal dementia disease spectrum. ( info)

9/40. Corticobasal degeneration presenting with nonfluent primary progressive aphasia: a clinicopathological study.

    A 62-year-old woman initially presented with slowly progressive nonfluent aphasia with minimal intellectual involvement. echolalia and personality change were prominent whereas parkinsonian features and signs suggesting parietal lobe dysfunctions were not present. The patient's language deficit was consistent with transcortical motor aphasia. She did not manifest extrapyramidal signs. The patient was diagnosed as having Pick's disease or frontal lobe dementia. She died at age 65, 2 years and 9 months following disease onset. Neuropathological findings including cytoskeletal abnormalities, however, were clearly distinct from those of classical Pick's disease and were consistent with those reported in corticobasal degeneration (CBD). The distribution of her cortical lesions was accentuated in the frontal language-related area. The clinical manifestations in CBD are diverse, and primary progressive nonfluent aphasia should be considered as an initial symptom of CBD. Neuropathological examination of such patients should include cytoskeletal abnormality studies. ( info)

10/40. Parkinson's disease with late Pick's dementia.

    We report a case in which typical clinical features of idiopathic Parkinson's disease existed for seven years prior to the development of significant behavioral and cognitive changes and severe dementia. The patient presented with right-sided resting tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity, which were highly responsive to levodopa. Serial neuropsychological evaluation revealed no evidence of dementia until late in the disease. The patient deteriorated rapidly eight years into the disease, requiring full care. She died 16 years after symptom onset and post-mortem neuropathological analysis revealed Lewy body Parkinson's disease and Pick's disease. To our knowledge, this is the first non-familial case with this combination of clinical history and pathologically confirmed disease to be reported in the literature. The absence of a family history of any neurological disease sets this case apart from the recently described genetic cases of frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. In addition, the relatively late onset of dementia in frontotemporal dementia is atypical. While there is considerable debate regarding the cause of dementia in idiopathic Parkinson's disease, our case illustrates that Pick's disease is one such cause. ( info)
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