Cases reported "Pigmentation Disorders"

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1/44. Bilateral tinea nigra plantaris and tinea nigra plantaris mimicking melanoma.

    tinea nigra, a superficial fungal infection caused by Phaeoannellomyces werneckii, presents as a hyperpigmented, nonscaling macule of variable size and shape. Typically lacking induration, erythema, or pruritus, these "ink spot" lesions may resemble junctional nevi or malignant melanoma. Rapid, noninvasive diagnosis can be provided by potassium hydroxide examination, demonstrating numerous large, dematiaceous hyphae.
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ranking = 1
keywords = melanoma, malignant melanoma
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2/44. Benign melanocytic proliferative nodule within a congenital naevus.

    A neonate presented with a deeply pigmented papule within a medium-sized congenital naevus. Histologically, this proved to be a benign proliferative nodule in a congenital naevus. This case is presented to highlight the occurrence of this lesion, the main differential of which is the rare entity of true congenital melanoma.
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ranking = 0.17430966790975
keywords = melanoma
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3/44. Fusiform incisional biopsy for pigmented skin lesions.

    Current recommendations for biopsy of a pigmented skin lesion suspected of being melanoma include complete excision when possible. Because benign pigmented lesions do not warrant excisional biopsy, especially when they are large and/or on cosmetically sensitive sites, incisional biopsy is desirable. For such lesions we recommend a fusiform incisional biopsy. This tissue sampling technique not only yields an excellent cosmetic outcome, but also provides the pathologist with an optimal biopsy specimen in which he/she can assess the symmetry, circumscription, breadth, and depth of the lesion.
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ranking = 0.17430966790975
keywords = melanoma
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4/44. Pigmented mammary Paget disease and pigmented epidermotropic metastases from breast carcinoma.

    Pigmented mammary Paget disease is a rare clinicopathologic variant of mammary Paget disease. It has been described in female and male patients with intraductal mammary carcinoma extending to the epidermis of the nipple and areola through a lactiferous duct. Pigmented cutaneous metastases from breast carcinoma are uncommon variants of epidermotropic metastatic breast carcinoma. All these lesions may mimic malignant melanoma clinically and histopathologically. From a histopathologic point of view, involvement of the dermoepidermal junction by neoplastic cells of the mammary carcinoma seems to be a prerequisite for development of the clinical pigmentation. We report three examples of pigmented mammary Paget disease and six cases of pigmented epidermotropic metastases from breast carcinoma, which were studied from both the histopathologic and immunohistochemical points of view. Two cases of pigmented mammary Paget disease and all cases of pigmented epidermotropic metastatic breast carcinoma showed the proliferation of dendritic melanocytes arranged as solitary units along the dermoepidermal junction and intermingled with the neoplastic cells of the mammary carcinoma in the superficial dermis. In one case of pigmented mammary Paget disease, there was abundant melanin within the cytoplasm of the Paget cells, but an increased number of melanocytes could not be demonstrated. Local production of melanocytic chemotactic factor by neoplastic cells of the mammary carcinoma when they reach the dermoepidermal junction has been postulated as the cause of the melanocytic proliferation and clinical hyperpigmentation of these epidermotropic breast carcinomas. Another possibility is the phagocytosis or transfer of melanin from melanocytes to the intraepidermal neoplastic cells of the breast carcinoma. Pigmented mammary Paget disease and pigmented epidermotropic metastatic breast carcinoma should be differentiated from melanoma clinical and histopathologically.
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ranking = 0.47707099627076
keywords = melanoma, malignant melanoma
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5/44. Pitfall in pigmentation: pseudopods in the nail plate.

    BACKGROUND: We present here a patient with an unusual type of nail plate pigmentation featuring pseudopod formation. OBJECTIVE: To identify additional dermoscopic criteria. methods: dermoscopy of the nail with control biopsy. RESULTS: Pseudopods of the nail resulted from erythrocytes entrapped between the layers of the nail plate. CONCLUSION: Pseudopod formation of the nail may represent a diagnostic criterion to distinguish hemorrhage and melanoma of the nail apparatus.
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ranking = 0.17430966790975
keywords = melanoma
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/44. Cutaneous endometriosis: non-invasive analysis by epiluminescence microscopy.

    The clinical appearance of cutaneous endometriosis can share some features with malignant melanoma, thus representing a possible cause for concern in both patient and clinician. In recent years, the use of epiluminescence microscopy (ELM, dermoscopy) has proved useful in improving the accuracy of diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. The purpose of this study was to analyse the dermoscopic features of cutaneous endometriosis with histopathological correlation. We studied a case which showed homogeneous reddish pigmentation, regularly distributed. Within this typical pigmentation there were small red globular structures, but more defined and of a deeper hue, which we called 'red atolls'. ELM thus revealed a distinctive pattern in cutaneous endometriosis.
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ranking = 0.30276132836101
keywords = melanoma, malignant melanoma
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7/44. Leukoderma in association with giant congenital nevi: report of two cases.

    Two patients are presented in whom giant congenital nevi were associated with hypopigmentation. One patient has had no associated melanoma. The second patient developed hypopigmentation years before a melanoma was excised, and increased hypopigmentation was noted years later without evidence of melanoma recurrence. While the mechanism for the development of the hypopigmentation noted in these two patients in uncertain, an immunologically mediated systemic process may be responsible.
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ranking = 0.52292900372924
keywords = melanoma
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8/44. An amalgam tattoo of the soft palate: a case report with energy dispersive X-ray analysis.

    A pigmented lesion of the soft palate was excised to exclude melanoma. The histology suggested an amalgam tattoo which was confirmed on energy dispersive X-ray analysis by the detection of silver and copper. This represents a very rare mimic of melanoma of the soft palate.
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ranking = 0.3486193358195
keywords = melanoma
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9/44. Exaggerated pigmented granulomatous reaction to the artificial joint implant mimics metastatic melanoma.

    Total joint replacement is a common orthopedic procedure. An artificial joint implant may fail due to mechanical mishap and a granulomatous reaction can be induced by the artificial joint debris after the mechanical failure. We report a case of an exaggerated pigmented granulomatous tissue response to metallic artificial joint implant debris in a 72-yr-old male that was mistaken for metastatic melanoma. The mass was soft, pigmented, ill-defined, and located in the right inguinal region. Fine-needle aspiration revealed numerous black-pigment laden cells. The cellular features were frequently obscured by the heavy pigmentation. Occasional cells exhibited atypia and prominent nucleoli. There were also abundant extracellular irregular small black particles dispersed in the background. The diagnosis of melanoma involving a lymph node was made. Since there was no prior history of melanoma, it was presumed that this represented metastatic melanoma from an unknown primary. A subsequent exploration of the groin was performed with the intent to resect the disease. At exploration, the mass was found to be contiguous with the hip joint and the frozen section of the mass revealed no evidence of melanoma. The final tissue diagnosis confirmed the frozen section report and showed a granulomatous reaction. This report underscores the diagnostic dilemma associated with the exaggerated pigmented granulomatous reaction due to an artificial prosthesis.
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ranking = 1.5687870111877
keywords = melanoma
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10/44. melanoma-like pigmented cutaneous metastases from breast carcinoma.

    We report a case of breast carcinoma that presented with pigmented cutaneous metastases clinically mimicking malignant melanoma. The pigmented nature of the tumour was probably caused by melanin release from the damaged epidermis (following invasion and destruction by tumour cells) and subsequent phagocytosis by melanophages. Clinically visible pigmentation in cutaneous metastases from breast carcinoma has been described previously but is very uncommon. This report is followed by a review of the few such cases published in the literature.
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ranking = 0.30276132836101
keywords = melanoma, malignant melanoma
(Clic here for more details about this article)
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