Cases reported "Pigmentation Disorders"

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1/50. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis in a young male.

    The pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD) are a group of disorders that most often occur on the lower extremities of middle-aged adults as asymptomatic, yellow-orange patches with petechiae. The PPD represent a benign, often chronic, capillaritis of unknown cause. We present a case of PPD on the abdomen of a young male and emphasize careful observation in such a patient to reveal possible progression to purpuric mycosis fungoides.
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2/50. Koraxitrachitic syndrome: a syndromic form of self-healing collodion baby with residual dappled atrophy of the derma.

    We report on a child with a generalized skin disorder associated with other minor anomalies. At birth, the child presented as a collodion baby, with patchy erythema, generalized irregular dermal atrophy, alopecia, absent eyelashes and eyebrows, and conjunctival pannus. He also had hypertelorism, prominent nasal root, large mouth, micrognathia, brachydactyly, syndactyly involving all interdigital spaces, and camptodactyly of fingers III-V. The hyperkeratotic membrane thinned progressively, leaving a mottled reticulated skin atrophy, with patchy areas of yellowish hyperpigmentation and papyraceous areas. hair and nails were dystrophic. Mental development was borderline normal. The histological hallmarks of the skin manifestations combined orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and marked atrophy of the dermis. The dermal extracellular matrix was immature, and factor xiii-a positive dendrocytes were rare and globular rather than dendritic. We frame as a hypothesis that the disease is due to or associated with a defect in maturation of a subset of dermal dendrocytes during fetal life. This entity may be designed as the koraxitrachitic syndrome (kappaomicronrhoalphaxi:grapnel- taurhoalphachiiotatauepsilonsigma: roughness) copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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3/50. Clinical, cytogenetic, and fluorescence in situ hybridization findings in two cases of "complete ring" syndrome.

    The term "ring syndrome" was proposed to describe a phenotype of growth failure without major malformations due to a ring autosome. The growth failure is thought to be caused by instability of the ring chromosome leading to aneusomy and cell death. Most previous studies of ring chromosomes were based on standard cytogenetic banding techniques and were limited to microscopically detectable deletions in the ring chromosomes. We report on two patients with complete ring (4) and ring (9) chromosomes, respectively. The first was a 15-month-old girl and the second was a 16-month-old boy. They both presented with severe, symmetrical growth failure and normal psychomotor development in the absence of malformations. Their parents had a normal phenotype. The first case had a whorled pattern of hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation on part of the face and chest, and the second case had a patchy hyperpigmented rash on the trunk. Peripheral blood karyotype of the first patient was 46,XX, r(4)(p16.3q35.2) and of the second 45,XY,-9/46,XY,r(9)(p24q34.3). G-band analysis suggested no loss of material in the ring chromosomes. These findings were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using chromosome-specific subtelomeric probes. The common human telomeric sequences were intact in the first patient but absent in the second patient. The cytogenetic and FISH data in our two cases provide further evidence for the existence of a "complete ring" phenotype independent of the autosome involved. Pigmentary skin changes are a useful clinical sign of mosaicism caused by the ring instability.
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4/50. Myelocystocele-cloacal exstrophy in a pedigree with a mitochondrial 12S rRNA mutation, aminoglycoside-induced deafness, pigmentary disturbances, and spinal anomalies.

    A large Filipino-American family with progressive matrilineal hearing loss, premature graying, depigmented patches, and digital anomalies was ascertained through a survey of a spina bifida clinic for neural crest disorders. deafness followed a matrilineal pattern of inheritance and was associated with the A1555G mutation in the 12S rRNA gene (MTRNR1) in affected individuals as well as unaffected maternal relatives. Several other malformations were found in carriers of the mutation. The proband had a myelocystocele, Arnold-Chiari type I malformation, cloacal exstrophy, and severe early-onset hearing loss. Several family members had premature graying, white forelock, congenital leukoderma with or without telecanthus, somewhat suggestive of a waardenburg syndrome variant. In addition to the patient with myelocystocele, two individuals had scoliosis and one had segmentation defects of spinal vertebrae. The syndromic characteristics reported here are novel for the mitochondrial A1555G substitution, and may result from dysfunction of mitochondrial genes during early development. However, the mitochondrial A1555G mutation is only rarely associated with neural tube defects as it was not found in a screen of 218 additional individuals with spina bifida, four of whom had congenital hearing loss.
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5/50. lichen planus with involvement of all twenty nails and the oral mucous membrane.

    A 57-year-old man had had deformities of all ten fingernails for one and a half years before presentation and deformities of all ten toenails for the previous six months. The surfaces of the nails were rough, with excessive longitudinal striations. The bases of the nails were slightly hypertrophic, and the tips were atrophic and itchy. A longitudinal nail biopsy including the nail matrix revealed the typical histology of lichen planus. Reticulated pigmentation, maceration, and erosion on the buccal mucous membrane were also discovered. Histological analysis of the buccal mucous membrane revealed lichen planus intermingled with eosinophils. Immunological blood analysis revealed elevated CD4 T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio. He worked as a tinsmith and had dental metal. The metal series patch test revealed positive reactions to chromate and tin. Treatment with systemic steroids was quite effective in treating the nail lesions.
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6/50. Hypomelanosis of Ito.

    A two-year-old male child presented with bizarre hypopigmented skin lesions, severe mental retardation and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Examination showed hypopigmented patterned whorls and irregular patches over the trunk and linear streaks over the flexor aspects of upper and lower limbs. He also had generalized hypertonia and brisk tendon reflexes. Other systems were normal.
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7/50. Two cases of vulval pigmented extramammary Paget's disease: histochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    We describe two Japanese female patients with pigmented extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD); one patient had a dark brown plaque and the other had a reddish patch with a pigmented area, both affecting the vulval region. Histochemical and immunohistochemical examinations confirmed EMPD with melanocyte colonization; plump tumour cells with a large nucleus and pale cytoplasm that were positive for CAM 5.2 and CEA proliferated singly or in nests in the epidermis, and scattered among the tumour cells were many dendritic cells with a large amount of melanin that were positive for HMB-45 and S-100 protein. Fontana-Masson (FM) stain showed many positive cells with well-developed dendritic processes within and around tumour nests. Histochemical and immunohistochemical studies of non-pigmented EMPD cases on the same region showed that HMB-45 positive cells were sparse or not detected at all, and that also FM staining-positive cells were decreased or not detected, and their dendritic processes were poorly formed. The present study suggests that there might be heterogeneity in EMPD in terms of relationships between Paget's cells and melanocytes.
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8/50. Alkaptonuric ochronosis presenting as palmoplantar pigmentation.

    We describe a 37-year-old woman who presented with palmoplantar pigmentation, thickening and pitting of 4 years duration. Bluish pigmented patches were seen over the sclera of her eyes. Her lumbar spine showed typical calcification of the intervertebral discs. Addition of Benedict's reagent to a urine sample of the patient gave rise to greenish brown precipitate and brownish black supernatant. Alkalinization of urine turned it black. A biopsy of the palmar lesion demonstrated irregular breaking up, swelling and homogenization of collagen bundles in the reticular dermis. Yellow-brown (ochre coloured) pigment was seen lying within the collagen bundles and also freely in the deeper dermis confirming our clinical diagnosis of alkaptonuric ochronosis. To the best of our knowledge this is probably the second report of alkaptonuria presenting with palmoplantar pigmentation.
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9/50. Pigmentary anomalies in ataxia--telangiectasia: a clue to diagnosis and an example of twin spotting.

    A 6-year-old girl with consanguineous parents presented with a history of progressive ataxia and patchy, segmental pigmentary changes, some reminiscent of Blaschko's lines. There was no evidence of oculocutaneous telangiectases or signs of immunodeficiency. A clinical diagnosis of ataxia--telangiectasia (AT) was suggested and confirmed by the presence of a low serum IgA, raised alpha-fetoprotein and chromosomal rearrangements of chromosomes 7 and 14. This case of AT is unique for having hypopigmentation and hyperpigmented patches adjacent to each other, which is a feature that has been described as 'cutis tricolor', and is unusual for having pigmentary skin changes, some in the lines of Blaschko without telangiectases. Clinicians should be aware that a diagnosis of AT may be made in the absence of telangiectases.
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10/50. erythema dyschromicum perstans: a case report and review.

    erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP) is an acquired ashy dermatosis characterized by patches of blue-gray pigmentation over the trunk, extremities, and neck. These pigmentary changes may become chronic and disfiguring. At present, the etiology of EDP remains unclear, and there is no single established therapy. We describe a 21-year-old Hispanic man with extensive patches of EDP who improved with oral corticosteroid therapy.
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