Cases reported "Pituitary Diseases"

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1/166. Interesting radiologic findings in suprasellar mass lesions. Report of three cases.

    The authors report three quite rare lesions of the sellar/parasellar region. They are namely; pituitary abscess, cystic macroadenoma and osteochondroma. In none of the cases, the preoperative diagnostic priority was not same as the final histopathologic diagnosis. The radiologic findings of these pathologies are discussed with emphasis on differential diagnosis.
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2/166. Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting as a pituitary tumour.

    A 45-year-old woman had pyrexia, headaches, collapse and hyponatraemia. Intracerebral abscess, bacterial meningitis and subarachnoid haemorrhage were excluded. She was given intravenous antibiotics and gradually recovered. One month later she was readmitted with diplopia, headache and vomiting. serum sodium was low (107 mmol/l) and a diagnosis of inappropriate ADH secretion was made. MRI scan showed a suprasellar tumour arising from the posterior pituitary gland. A skin rash gradually faded. serum cortisol, prolactin, gonadotrophins and thyroid hormone levels were low. A pituitary tumour was removed trans-sphenoidally, she had external pituitary radiotherapy, and replacement hydrocortisone and thyroxine. She was well for 12 months when she developed progressive weakness and numbness of both legs. Examination suggested spinal cord compression at the level of T2 where MRI scanning showed an intradural enhancing mass. This spinal tumour was removed and her neurological symptoms disappeared. Nine months after this she developed facial pain and nasal obstruction. CT scan showed tumour growth into the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavities. A right Cauldwell-Luc operation was done and residual tumour in the nasal passages was treated by fractionated external radiotherapy and prednisolone. Histological examination of the specimens from pituitary, spinal mass, and nasal sinuses showed Rosai-Dorfman disease, a rare entity characterized by histiocytic proliferation, emperipolesis (lymphophagocytosis) and lymphadenopathy. aged 48 she developed cranial diabetes insipidus. Although Rosai-Dorfman syndrome is rare, it is being reported with increasing frequency, and should be borne in mind as a possible cause of a pituitary tumour.
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3/166. A rare case of pituitary hyperplasia with suprasellar extension due to primary myxoedema: case report.

    The development of pituitary tumours as a consequence of primary target organ failure is rare. We report here a rare case of pituitary hyperplasia with suprasellar extension due to primary myxoedema. This case presentation suggested the importance of detailed endocrine investigation and repeated magnetic resonance imaging for the differential diagnosis of pituitary enlargement to avoid unnecessary surgery.
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4/166. Symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst coexisting with central diabetes insipidus and hypophysitis: case report.

    We describe a 48-year-old female with acute onset of central diabetes insipidus followed by mild anterior pituitary dysfunction. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed enlargement of the hypophysis-infundibulum accompanied by a cystic component. She underwent a transsphenoidal exploration of the sella turcica. Histological examination showed foreign body type xanthogranulomatous inflammation in the neurohypophysis which might have been caused by rupture of a Rathke's cleft cyst. The MRI abnormalities and anterior pituitary dysfunction improved after a short course of corticosteroid administration, but the diabetes insipidus persisted. The histological findings in this case indicated the site of RCC rupture and the direction of the progression of RCC induced neurohypophysitis and adenohypophysitis.
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ranking = 1.7231913265273
keywords = sella turcica, turcica, sella
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5/166. Pituitary adenoma with neuronal choristoma: a report of two rare cases.

    Two rare cases of pituitary adenoma with neuronal choristoma are described. Both patients were female and presented with features of acromegaly with elevated growth hormone and prolactin levels. Radiologically, both lesions were predominantly intrasellar in location with extension into suprasellar region, but hypothalamus was not involved. Histopathological examination revealed a mixture of chromophobe pituitary adenoma cells and neuronal cells. In both cases, the adenoma component was positive for growth hormone and prolactin. Interestingly, immunopositivity for alpha-subunit, cytokeratin and prolactin was seen in the adenoma and neuronal cells in one case. Our findings support the hypothesis that the neuronal cells possibly arise from adenoma cells as a result of metaplasia.
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6/166. Sinus histiocytosis (Rosai-Dorfman disease) of the suprasellar region: MR imaging findings--a case report.

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) is an uncommon disorder that typically manifests as systemic symptoms and lymphadenopathy. Extranodal, intracranial disease is uncommon. The authors report on a 15-year-old adolescent girl who had a suprasellar mass at magnetic resonance imaging. biopsy results demonstrated lymphophagocytosis consistent with a diagnosis of SHML. The clinical, radiologic, and histologic aspects of the disease are discussed.
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7/166. Hypophyseal tuberculoma: direct radiosurgery is contraindicated for a lesion with a thickened pituitary stalk: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Hypophyseal tuberculomas are extremely rare lesions. The recognition of hypophyseal tuberculomas in the differential diagnosis of pituitary tumors is important, even with no evidence of systemic tuberculosis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 27-year-old female patient presented with continuous, dull, generalized headaches and amenorrhea, with no history of visual diminution, galactorrhea, or endocrinological abnormalities and no evidence of systemic tuberculosis. The patient exhibited a normal water balance, without polyuria or polydipsia. A gynecological examination, including an endometrial biopsy for amenorrhea, did not reveal any abnormalities. Perimetric and endocrinological examination results were normal. Contrast magnetic resonance imaging revealed a dense enhancing intrasellar mass, with thickening of the pituitary stalk. INTERVENTION: Sublabial rhinoseptal transsphenoidal decompression of the lesion was performed. The histopathological features were consistent with a diagnosis of tuberculoma, and acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in the surgically removed tissue with Ziehl-Neelsen staining. As soon as the histopathological features were known, the patient underwent a lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid analysis, which indicated normal findings. An intradermal tuberculin test yielded negative results. The patient was treated with medical therapy for 18 months, and complete resolution of the lesion was observed in follow-up examinations. CONCLUSION: Hypophyseal tuberculomas are often mistaken for pituitary adenomas. The finding of a thickened pituitary stalk in contrast magnetic resonance imaging scans may be useful for the differentiation of these lesions from pituitary adenomas. Direct radiosurgery is not an appropriate primary treatment method for pituitary adenomas and is principally restricted to elderly, medically unfit patients with microadenomas and patients with residual or recurrent tumors after microsurgery. It is contraindicated for patients who exhibit a thickened pituitary stalk in contrast magnetic resonance imaging scans.
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8/166. Lymphocytic hypophysitis. Case report.

    Lymphocytic hypophysitis is a very unusual disease typically observed in the peripartum period but found also in non-pregnant women or in men. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman with a five-year history of erithema nodosus for which was treated with variable doses of steroids. One year before admission the patient began to complain of headache, amenorrhea and rapidly progressive hypopituitarism. magnetic resonance imaging showed an expanding sellar mass with homogeneous contrast enhancement while lacking the hyperintense signal of posterior lobe. The MRI findings and the history of autoimmune disease raised the suspicion of hypophysitis. The growth of the lesion and its unresponsiveness to the prolonged steroid therapy made surgery, which is both diagnostic and therapeutic, mandatory. The pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of this unusual clinical condition are discussed.
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9/166. growth hormone secreting adenoma with unusual extension: coexisting pituitary cyst and its clinical significance.

    A 58 year old man showed acromegalic features. The serum growth hormone (GH) level was 7.3 ng/ml and SMC (somatomedin-C) 637 U/ml. Triple stimulation test showed abnormal response compatible with a GH secreting tumour. The conventional enhanced MRI revealed a less enhanced hemisphere-shaped lesion at the right corner of the sella turcica. In addition, dynamic MRI demonstrated an elongated lesion extending to the left beyond the midline. The patient underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Besides the soft and suckable tumour at the right corner, we entered into a small cavity loosely filled with the tumour, which was subsequently also removed. The operative finding corresponded to the lesion shown in dynamic MRI. Postoperative GH and SMC levels became 2.3 ng/ml and 326 U/ml respectively. Incidental pituitary cystic lesions in autopsied cases have been reported to be 6-33%. This case had a GH secreting adenoma with coexisting pituitary cyst. The coexisting pituitary cyst supposedly influenced the unusual shape and extension of the pituitary adenoma. Coexistence of such lesion should be kept in mind for microadenoma on neuroradiological evaluation and on intraoperative inspection surrounding the tumour.
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ranking = 1.7231913265273
keywords = sella turcica, turcica, sella
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10/166. Lymphocytic adenohypophysitis mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma.

    A 24-year-old woman developed headache and rapidly progressive visual disturbances during the last trimester of her first pregnancy. Magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) of the brain documented an intra- and suprasellar mass lesion. For preservation of vision, transsphenoidal microsurgical decompression was performed. Immediately postoperatively, visual acuity improved and hemianopia resolved. Histological examination yielded the diagnosis of primary lymphocytic adenohypophysitis. This is a rare inflammatory pituitary disease. There are no typical clinical, laboratory, or radiological findings that allow precise preoperative diagnosis. Even though this autoimmune disorder is principally steroid-responsive, an improvement of visual disturbances under steroid therapy cannot be predicted. Therefore, surgery is justified not only to establish the diagnosis, but also to restore vision by decompression of the optic nerves and the chiasm.
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