Cases reported "Pituitary Neoplasms"

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1/210. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with metastasis to the pituitary gland: a case report.

    An unusual case of metastatic bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung presented as a pituitary tumour in a young adult Chinese female, who subsequently died after having undergone trans-sphenoidal resection. Metastatic cancers of the pituitary are uncommon even in necropsy series and rarely give rise to clinical symptoms. This case draws attention to the fact that, although uncommon, pituitary metastases have been noted with increasing frequency and their distinction from primary pituitary tumours is often difficult. A metastatic pituitary tumour may be the initial presentation of an unknown primary malignancy, wherein the metastatic deposits may also be limited to the pituitary gland. Clinicians and pathologists alike should consider a metastatic lesion in the differential diagnosis of a non-functioning pituitary tumour.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer
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2/210. Aggressive giant pituitary adenoma presenting as a nasopharyngeal mass: magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic findings.

    We report a giant pituitary adenoma with aggressive histologic features that prominently invaded the nasopharynx. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a large heterogeneous nodular mass that was hypointense to isointense on T1-weighted images and mixed hypointense, isointense, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The mass measured 7.5 x 5 x 7 cm, extending from the nasopharynx posteriorly through the clivus, and superiorly through the paranasal sinuses, and sellar-suprasellar region. After contrast administration, heterogeneous nodular enhancement was noted. A nasopharyngeal neoplasm extending into the sella was suspected because voice change and nasal speech long preceded the patient's visual symptoms. A biopsy disclosed an aggressive, infiltrating, hemorrhagic tumor, which was diagnosed as a non-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. This report indicates that pituitary adenomas may grow invasively to tremendously large sizes resulting in their initial presentation as nasopharyngeal masses.
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ranking = 22.796400821049
keywords = neoplasm
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3/210. Secondary infertility as early symptom in a man with multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1.

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant familial cancer syndrome characterized by parathyroid hyperplasia, pancreatic endocrine tumours and pituitary adenomas. Here, we report a patient with a history of insulinoma who developed secondary infertility as a further symptom of the disease. When he was first examined at the age of 36 years, he complained of weakness, reduced libido and impotence. Laboratory evaluation revealed non-obstructive azoospermia and hyperprolactinaemia. In contrast to sexual activity and serum prolactin, semen quality did not significantly respond to bromocriptine therapy. During follow-up, a growing pituitary adenoma caused acromegaly with elevated serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and prolactin. After microsurgery of the tumour at the age of 44 years, sperm concentration persistently increased up to 5.6 x 10(6)/ml. In accordance with the clinical diagnosis of MEN1, dna sequencing revealed a mutation in exon 2 of the menin gene which results in a truncated, inactive protein product. In conclusion, MEN1 with pituitary lesions may cause severe hypogonadism and infertility. Both hyperprolactinaemia and overproduction of growth hormone and IGF-1 seem to be involved in testicular dysfunction in the present case. The possible role of menin in the testis, however, remains to be elucidated.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer
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4/210. Neuromyotonia of the abducens nerve after hypophysectomy and radiation.

    The clinical signs of the rarely encountered ocular neuromyotonia consist of transient involuntary tonic contraction and delayed relaxation of single or multiple extraocular muscles, resulting in episodic diplopia. With a mean time delay of 3.5 years, this motility disorder frequently follows tumor excision or adjuvant radiation near the skull base. Ocular neuromyotonia may reflect inappropriate discharge from oculomotor neurons with unstable cell membranes because of segmental demyelinization by tumor compression and radiation-induced microangiopathy. In the present paper, the authors present the case of a 53-year-old patient with a history of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy, who underwent strabismus surgery for abducens palsy.
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ranking = 343.83205590471
keywords = radiation-induced
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5/210. The bifrontal olfactory nerve-sparing approach to lesions of the suprasellar region in children.

    Suprasellar masses in children include lesions such as craniopharyngiomas and germ cell neoplasms. The difficult location of these lesions and their proximity to important neural and vascular structures pose challenges to resection. We operated on 14 patients using a bifrontal craniotomy with removal of both orbital rims to provide access to suprasellar masses, even those with significant extension into the third ventricle. A complete resection was possible in 8/14 patients and 8/10 craniopharyngiomas. In 13 patients, the optic nerves were identified and preserved, and vision was stable or improved postoperatively. Postoperatively, 1 patient with hydrocephalus developed a CSF leak which was successfully treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. No patient had a cosmetic defect related to orbital rim removal. The bifrontal approach used here enhanced the exposure of the suprasellar region and minimized manipulation of the optic apparatus and the carotid arteries. It may be used alone, or in conjunction with other approaches, to resect lesions in the suprasellar region.
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ranking = 22.796400821049
keywords = neoplasm
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6/210. Cushing's syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion from metastatic breast carcinoma.

    breast carcinoma is a rare cause of ectopic ACTH syndrome. There are only two previously reported cases in which ACTH secretion is documented. We describe the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with clinical and biochemical features of ectopic ACTH syndrome in the setting of metastatic breast carcinoma. Despite aggressive management of her ectopic ACTH syndrome, her course was complicated by opportunistic infection, respiratory failure and death. Immunostaining of the breast metastases for ACTH was positive and in situ hybridization revealed proopiomelanocortin gene expression. This is the first reported case of ectopic ACTH syndrome associated with metastatic breast cancer in which the technique of in situ hybridization has been used to confirm the breast cancer metastases as the source of ectopic ACTH secretion.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cancer
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7/210. danazol and multiple hepatic adenomas: peculiar clinical findings in an acromegalic patient.

    Hepatic adenomas are rare tumors; they have been associated with the use of anabolic steroids. acromegaly increases the overall risk of neoplasms. We report the case of a female acromegalic patient in whom multiple hepatic adenomas appeared soon after danazol treatment for uterine fibromatosis. Treatment of acromegaly with octreotide, followed by successful selective pituitary adenomectomy, stabilized the number and the size of the liver tumors. We suggest that oversecretions of GH and IGF-I were strong promoting factors for liver tumorigenesis in this patient.
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ranking = 22.796400821049
keywords = neoplasm
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8/210. Melanotic craniopharyngioma: a report of two cases.

    We report a 74-year-old woman and a 50-year-old woman with similar histories of headache and visual disturbance who were found to have adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas which contained melanin pigment. This finding was confirmed by the Masson Fontana method and ultrastructural studies. These are only the second and third cases reported describing melanin pigment within a craniopharyngioma. The finding of melanin in craniopharyngiomas attests to their similarities with odontogenic tumors of the jaw, which can also contain melanin pigment and also supports the hypothesis that the histogenesis of these neoplasms derives from the vestiges of Rathke's pouch epithelium.
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ranking = 22.796400821049
keywords = neoplasm
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9/210. Adult-onset angiofibroma and multiple endocrine neoplasia type I.

    multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) predisposes affected persons to neoplasms of the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, the anterior pituitary, and the duodenum. We report the first case of adult-onset multiple angiofibromas of the central face associated with MEN 1. Seven siblings also developed adult-onset angiofibromas, none with evidence of tuberous sclerosis. Basic fibroblast growth factor (BFGF) is elevated in many patients with MEN 1 and may play a pathogenetic role.
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ranking = 22.796400821049
keywords = neoplasm
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10/210. Fatal toxic effect of bleomycin on brain tissue after intracystic chemotherapy for a craniopharyngioma: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Craniopharyngiomas are benign neoplasms of epithelial origin that arise from the remnants of Rathke's pouch and are located in the sellar, parasellar, and third ventricular regions. Despite major advances in microsurgical techniques, total removal of these tumors is associated with a high risk of death, long-term endocrinological dependence, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral disorders. For patients with monocystic craniopharyngiomas, encouraging postoperative survival rates and high rates of cyst regression after intracavitary administration of bleomycin have been reported. Moreover, only a few side effects have been reported for this treatment method. We report a patient with a cystic craniopharyngioma who was treated using intracavitary bleomycin administration and died as a result of the direct toxic effects of bleomycin on deep brain structures and the brainstem. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 47-year-old woman with a cystic craniopharyngioma underwent stereotactic insertion of a catheter attached to a subcutaneous reservoir. Five months after the procedure, positive-contrast computed tomographic cystography was performed to confirm the absence of fluid leakage. Daily intracavitary injections of bleomycin were administered through the reservoir into the cyst, until a total dose of 56 mg had been administered in 8 days. After the treatment, the cystic cavity regressed but the patient exhibited neurological deterioration; magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed diffuse edema in the diencephalon and brainstem. The patient died 45 days after completion of the treatment. CONCLUSION: Intracavitary administration of bleomycin is not a treatment protocol without risks or side effects, even if there is no fluid leakage into the cerebrospinal fluid. Although this is known to be an effective treatment for cystic craniopharyngiomas, previous reports cannot be used to establish a standard treatment method, and more research is needed to yield a safer effective protocol.
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ranking = 22.796400821049
keywords = neoplasm
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