Cases reported "Pituitary Neoplasms"

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1/412. Progression of a Nelson's adenoma to pituitary carcinoma; a case report and review of the literature.

    A 25-year-old woman developed Nelson's syndrome, 3 years after successful bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease. Despite pituitary surgery and radiotherapy the tumour showed invasive growth, leading to visual disturbance, paresis of the oculomotor nerve and, 34 years after adrenalectomy, to death by widespread purulent leptomeningitis. autopsy revealed a large adenohypophyseal carcinoma with a metastasis attached to the dura, both tumours showing immunocytochemical staining for ACTH and TSH. We review the literature on metastatic adenohypophyseal carcinoma in Cushing's disease and Nelson's syndrome and discuss the role of proliferation markers as indicators of malignant progression.
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2/412. Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy--two case reports.

    A 60-year-old female and a 66-year-old male presented with post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy associated with clinically asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as severe visual disturbance that had not developed immediately after the head injury. skull radiography showed a unilateral linear occipital fracture. magnetic resonance imaging revealed pituitary tumor with dumbbell-shaped suprasellar extension and fresh intratumoral hemorrhage. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in the first patient, and the visual disturbance subsided. decompressive craniectomy was performed in the second patient to treat brain contusion and part of the tumor was removed to decompress the optic nerves. The mechanism of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy may occur as follows. The intrasellar part of the tumor is fixed by the bony structure forming the sella, and the suprasellar part is free to move, so a rotational force acting on the occipital region on one side will create a shearing strain between the intra- and suprasellar part of the tumor, resulting in pituitary apoplexy. Recovery of visual function, no matter how severely impaired, can be expected if an emergency operation is performed to decompress the optic nerves. Transsphenoidal surgery is the most advantageous procedure, as even partial removal of the tumor may be adequate to decompress the optic nerves in the acute stage. Staged transsphenoidal surgery is indicated to achieve total removal later.
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3/412. Pituitary metastasis from carcinoma of the urinary bladder mimicking pituitary apoplexy--case report.

    A 70-year-old male presented with pituitary metastasis from transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder manifesting as sudden headache, transient unconsciousness, and visual disturbance mimicking apoplexy of pituitary adenoma. Computed tomography showed a suprasellar tumor with intratumoral and intraventricular hemorrhage. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intra- and suprasellar mass lesion mimicking pituitary adenoma. diabetes insipidus developed soon after. The tumor was subtotally removed. Histological examination revealed transitional cell carcinoma. An intratumoral hemorrhage may be associated with a pituitary metastasis if the patient presents with symptoms such as pituitary apoplexy.
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4/412. December 1998--16 year old female with headaches, lethargy and a sellar/suprasellar mass.

    A 16 year female with a history of developmental delay and shunted hydrocephalus presented with two months of progressive headaches, lethargy and visual disturbances. An MRI of the brain revealed a sellar and suprasellar cystic mass which was absent on a previous MRI six years earlier. The pre-operative clinical diagnosis was pituitary adenoma vs. craniopharyngioma. Histologically, the fibrous wall of the ciliated epithelial-lined cyst was thickened by non-caseating granulomatous inflammation, hemorrhage, hemosiderin, and cholesterol clefts, consistent with cyst rupture. Rathke's cleft cysts are uncommon symptomatic lesions in young people, and must be distinguished from craniopharyngioma.
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5/412. Aggressive giant pituitary adenoma presenting as a nasopharyngeal mass: magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic findings.

    We report a giant pituitary adenoma with aggressive histologic features that prominently invaded the nasopharynx. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a large heterogeneous nodular mass that was hypointense to isointense on T1-weighted images and mixed hypointense, isointense, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The mass measured 7.5 x 5 x 7 cm, extending from the nasopharynx posteriorly through the clivus, and superiorly through the paranasal sinuses, and sellar-suprasellar region. After contrast administration, heterogeneous nodular enhancement was noted. A nasopharyngeal neoplasm extending into the sella was suspected because voice change and nasal speech long preceded the patient's visual symptoms. A biopsy disclosed an aggressive, infiltrating, hemorrhagic tumor, which was diagnosed as a non-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. This report indicates that pituitary adenomas may grow invasively to tremendously large sizes resulting in their initial presentation as nasopharyngeal masses.
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6/412. Intrasellar paraganglioma presenting as nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma.

    Paragangliomas arising in the sellar region are rare. We report a case of intrasellar paraganglioma of a 54-year-old man who presented with gradually decreasing visual acuity. physical examination revealed bitemporal hemianopsia with no apparent signs of endocrinologic dysfunction. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large sellar mass believed to be a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma. The tumor was removed transsphenoidally and submitted for histologic examination. The morphologic features, based on histologic, immunocytochemical, and electron microscopic analyses, were consistent with the diagnosis of paraganglioma. The diagnostic morphologic features and the immunocytochemical profile of the tumor are reported.
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7/412. prolactinoma manifesting with symptomatic hydrocephalus.

    Prolactinomas are the most common secretory adenomas of pituitary origin. They typically manifest with symptoms referable to their endocrinologic effects or, if of sufficient size, to visual changes due to compression of the optic chiasm. Pituitary adenomas manifesting with hydrocephalus are rare. To our knowledge, only three such cases have previously been reported. We describe an 81-year-old woman with a pituitary adenoma that manifested with hydrocephalus. In addition, we review the literature and discuss therapeutic options.
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8/412. Clinical and morphological features of undifferentiated monomorphous GH/TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.

    A 41-year-old male presented with progressive visual defects, acromegaly and hyperthyroidism. After clinical evaluation a giant GH/TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma was diagnosed. Administration of the somatostatin analog octreotide at doses of 150 microg s.c. per day inhibited the secretion of both GH and TSH. A three-week treatment with octreotide prior to surgery led to slight visual improvement and CT scan showed some new necrotic areas within the tumor mass. Transcranial surgery was performed. By immunohistochemical analyses of the adenoma tissue GH, prolactin and beta-chorionic gonadotropin were detected; TSH was negative. Electron microscopy revealed an undifferentiated, monomorphous adenoma with morphological features of an acidophil stem cell adenoma such as the presence of misplaced exocytoses, fibrous bodies and mitochondrial gigantism. However, the tumor cells contained small secretory granules (up to 250 nm) accumulated along the cell membrane characteristic of thyrotrope cells. Furthermore, some adenoma cells were fusiform with long cytoplasmic processes resembling thyrotropes. Two months after the operation CT scan revealed a large residual tumor. serum GH and TSH levels had increased again and the TSH level was even higher than before the treatment. The patient died suddenly, most probably of lethal arrhythmia. Specimens of the adenoma tissue obtained at autopsy confirmed the previous findings with the exception of positive immunostaining for TSH which was found in less than 1% of the adenoma cells. This undifferentiated, monomorphous GH/TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma represents an entity that is unusual both in its ultrastructural features and clinical manifestations suggesting a cytogenesis from an early, undifferentiated stem cell.
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9/412. The perils of a sneeze.

    A 51-year-old woman had a 3-day history of severe left supraorbital pain associated with blurred vision of the left eye. Examination revealed visual acuity of 20/20 OD and 20/100 OS. A left relative afferent pupillary defect was present. neuroimaging revealed a large intra-, supra-, and parasellar mass that had eroded through the sphenoid sinus into the maxillary sinus. Secondary pneumocephalus was present. Pathologic examination of the tissue revealed a pituitary adenoma of the null cell type. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one other case in the literature in which a spontaneous pneumatocele represents the initial manifestation of a pituitary adenoma.
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10/412. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (34). Invasive pituitary macroadenoma.

    A 44-year-old woman presenting with headache and decreased visual acuity was found to have bilateral papilloedema. Radiograph showed an enlarged pituitary fossa. MR scans demonstrated a large solid tumor with central necrosis, and both suprasellar and infrasellar extension. The invasive pituitary macroadenoma was surgically debulked, followed by radiotherapy. The clinical and imaging features of pituitary macroadenomas are discussed.
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