Cases reported "Placenta Accreta"

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1/35. Placenta percreta: report of a case.

    placenta accreta, increta, or percreta are rare but potentially lethal obstetric emergencies. Removal of abnormal growth of the placenta into the uterine wall is difficult or impossible and results in massive blood loss. hysterectomy may be necessary to save the mother's life. The common predisposing factors in development of placenta percreta are repeat cesarean and placenta previa. The diagnosis of placenta percreta may remain undiagnosed until delivery. The case presented describes a scenario involving placenta percreta with bladder involvement in which the diagnosis was known in advance. The article describes the preoperative preparation, intraoperative events, and postoperative status of this particular case.
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2/35. Airway changes during Cesarean hysterectomy.

    PURPOSE: To document whether hemorrhage and fluid administration during peripartum hysterectomy results in changes in the airway that may predispose to subsequent difficult intubation, in the event that intraoperative general anesthesia is required during regional anesthesia. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 32-yr-old underwent peripartum hysterectomy for placenta accreta. Blood loss of 5.5 L occurred during surgery requiring 6 L crystalloid, 1 L hetastarch, five units packed RBCs and two units fresh frozen plasma. Airway changes were followed using Samsoon's modification of Mallampati airway classification. In addition, airway photographs were obtained using a Polaroid camera. The airway of the patient changed from class 2 preoperatively to class 4 in the immediate postoperative period. The airway gradually returned to normal over the ensuing 48 hr, during which a negative fluid balance of 4 L occurred due to substantial postoperative diuresis. CONCLUSION: Peripartum airway changes were detected during Cesarean hysterectomy and fluid resuscitation that gradually returned to normal within 48 hr after surgery.
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3/35. Transient myocardial ischemia may occur following subendometrial vasopressin infiltration.

    A case of transient myocardial ischemia following subendometrial vasopressin infiltration in intractable intra-operative postpartum bleeding due to placenta accreta is described. In our experience, the rate of this side effect is one in 14 patients (rate of 7.1%). We believe that the benefits of the treatment outweigh the risks, since the uterus was saved in all 14 patients. Nevertheless, this case emphasises that extreme precaution is needed with subendometrial vasopressin infiltration. It should be emphasised that the needle must not be within a blood vessel because intravascular injection of vasopressin solution can precipitate acute arterial hypertension, bradycardia and even death. We suggest that local vasopressin infiltration into the placental site is indicated in cases of intractable bleeding at cesarean section after other conventional obstetric and pharmacological maneuvers have failed.
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4/35. Alternative conservative management of placenta accreta. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: placenta accreta is a rare event in pregnancy and may cause life-threatening hemorrhage. This obstetric complication is a diagnostic and management challenge. When the condition is diagnosed, medical management is usually employed first for hemostasis. If the bleeding cannot be controlled, conservative surgical management is attempted, but hysterectomy is often required for definitive care. CASE: The diagnosis of placenta accreta was made intraoperatively at cesarean section undertaken for breech presentation. The placenta was densely adherent to the anterior lower uterus. Severe hemorrhage, which resulted from attempts to manually remove it, was treated with oxytocin, carboprost tromethamine and methylergonovine without success. The uterus was everted to provide access to the placental site, which was excised; the myometrial defect was sutured closed. Three Foley balloons were used to provide uterine tamponade. methotrexate was administered prophylactically. These measures effectively controlled the hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: Because placenta accreta might not be diagnosed antepartum or during labor, especially when no risk factors are present, adequate preparations cannot be made. If it is diagnosed at the time of cesarean section, a combined conservative approach may prove helpful in controlling bleeding and avoid hysterectomy and hypovolemia.
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5/35. Prophylactic perioperative hypogastric artery balloon occlusion in abnormal placentation.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the technique of prophylactic balloon occlusion of hypogastric arteries in abnormal placentation. Five patients with suspected placenta accreta, placenta percreta, or placenta increta underwent perioperative balloon occlusion of hypogastric arteries after classic cesarean delivery and before hysterectomy with hypogastric artery ligation. Two patients did not require transfusions; of the three who did, the estimated blood loss ranged from 1100 to 4000 mL. CONCLUSION: We conclude that balloon occlusion of the hypogastric arteries is a safe and effective adjunct to cesarean hysterectomy in an attempt to minimize blood loss in patients with abnormal placentation.
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6/35. Normovolemic hemodilution before cesarean hysterectomy for placenta percreta.

    BACKGROUND: Placenta percreta can create life-threatening hemorrhage at the time of delivery. The additional challenge of patient refusal of blood transfusion for religious reasons requires the use of comprehensive blood-conserving strategies. CASE: A Jehovah's Witness with two previous cesarean deliveries and a placenta previa was diagnosed antenatally as having placenta percreta. Acute normovolemic hemodilution was performed in conjunction with cesarean hysterectomy with no maternal or fetal side effects. CONCLUSION: Acute normovolemic hemodilution can be used safely in the pregnant woman at high risk for excessive intraoperative blood loss and should be considered in obstetric patients who strictly adhere to religious convictions prohibiting the acceptance of blood products.
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7/35. placenta accreta diagnosed at 9 weeks' gestation.

    The majority of cases of placenta accreta are unanticipated and initially identified intraoperatively. Although color Doppler ultrasound is adequate for the evaluation of placenta accreta in the third trimester, ultrasound diagnosis in the first trimester has never been reported. To our knowledge, this is the first case of placenta accreta detected at 9 weeks' gestation by ultrasound. placenta accreta with intraplacental lacunae can be identified together with a loss of the hypoechogenic retroplacental myometrial zone. Based on this case, we found that early diagnosis of placenta accreta in the first trimester by ultrasound is possible.
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8/35. Urologic complications of placenta percreta invading the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    INTRODUCTION: Placenta percreta invading the urinary bladder may cause hemorrhagic shock, hematuria and urologic complications at parturition. This retrospective survey of 54 patients reviews maternal characteristics, presentations, urologic complications, and management. methods: The first reported case of placenta percreta with urinary bladder invasion in hawaii is presented. medline search and literature review identified an additional 53 patients. A meta-analysis of all 54 cases was performed. RESULTS: hematuria was present initially in 31% (17/54) patients. Of these, 9 of 17 required transfusion support. A preoperative diagnosis was established by ultrasound or MRI in 33% of patients. cystoscopy was performed in 12 patients and did not make a preoperative diagnosis in any patient. 39 urologic complications included bladder laceration 26%, urinary fistula 13%, gross hematuria 9%, ureteral transection 6%, and small capacity bladder 4%. Partial cystectomy was performed in 44% (24/54). Three maternal deaths and 14 fetal deaths occurred. Only 1 patient subsequently had a delivery. CONCLUSION: Readily identifiable risk factors by history are important to suggest placenta percreta in pregnant patients with gross hematuria. Ultrasound and/or MRI can establish a preoperative diagnosis. cystoscopy did not identify any patient preoperatively. Partial cystectomy is commonly required for extensive or deep bladder invasion.
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9/35. Antenatal diagnosis of placenta percreta with planned in situ retention and methotrexate therapy in a woman infected with hiv.

    Placenta percreta is a rare obstetric condition associated with potentially life-threatening hemorrhage. Diagnosis in advance of delivery permits a planned delivery and preparation for blood transfusions and planned Cesarean hysterectomy, which is the common treatment. We report a case of placenta percreta in an hiv-positive patient which was diagnosed in the second trimester using conventional and extended field of view ultrasound imaging and color Doppler. At 36 weeks the infant was delivered by cesarean section and the placenta was left in situ. Postoperatively the patient was treated with methotrexate. Four weeks later, the patient delivered the placenta spontaneously. Early or late postpartum hemorrhage did not occur and postoperative recovery was uneventful.
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10/35. Percutaneous treatment of placenta percreta using coil embolization.

    PURPOSE: To report the use of embolotherapy to avoid hysterectomy in rare placenta percreta. CASE REPORT: A pregnant 34-year-old woman (gravida 3, para 2) was admitted with premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding in the 32nd week. Prenatal B-mode and Doppler ultrasound revealed marked hypervascularity of the placenta with disruption of the uterine-bladder interface consistent with placenta percreta. Since the patient insisted on uterine preservation, uterus and placenta were left in situ after caesarean section, which was followed by coaxial microcoil embolization of 6 pelvic arteries and postoperative methotrexate administration. Three months later, the patient had severe bleeding from the retained placenta, possibly under the influence of anticoagulation administered for pulmonary embolism. Emergent hysterectomy was performed. CONCLUSIONS: Coil embolization may avoid immediate hysterectomy and reduce peri-delivery blood loss in placenta percreta. However, retained placenta poses a serious risk, even after months, and secondary hysterectomy should be performed as an elective procedure after embolization.
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