Cases reported "Placenta Diseases"

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1/21. Alcoholization: the choice of intrauterine treatment for chorioangioma.

    Chorioangioma is a vascular tumor of the placenta. Most are small and asymptomatic, whereas the large tumors are clinically significant and often associated with polyhydramnios and fetal heart failure. To prevent fetal loss from these complications, many interventions have been proposed, including intrauterine transfusion in anemic cases and fetoscopic surgery to ablate the feeding vessels. The case presented herein had large chorioangiomas, 8 and 4cm in diameter, associated with polyhydramnios and early signs of hydrops fetalis, diagnosed at 27 weeks gestation. After extensive counseling, we performed alcohol ablation of the feeding vessel of the larger tumor. Signs of fetal heart failure and hydrops fetalis disappeared dramatically. The pregnancy was extended for 2 weeks, followed by premature rupture of the membranes and spontaneous labor at 32 weeks gestation and a surviving female baby, weighing 1360g, was delivered uneventfully. This preliminary experience suggests that alcoholization may be one of the best choices for this condition due to its high efficacy, simplicity, safety and very low cost. To our knowledge, this is the first report using alcoholization for the treatment of hydrops fetalis secondary to chorioangioma.
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keywords = transfusion
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2/21. Massive chronic feto-maternal bleeding associated with placental chorioangiomas.

    After pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios and the antenatal discovery of a very large placenta a newborn infant suffered from anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypoproteinemic edema, and was successfully treated by exchange transfusion. The placenta contained two chorioangiomas and there was diffuse placental hypertrophy with edema and patchy chorioangiomatosis. There was evidence of major chronic feto-maternal bleeding which could be the explanation for most of the hematological and biochemical problems which occurred. The child was developing normally at subsequent follow-up aged 15 weeks.
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keywords = transfusion
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3/21. Place of embolization of the uterine arteries in the management of post-partum haemorrhage: a study of 12 cases.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the current place of embolization of the uterine arteries in the treatment of severe post-partum haemorrhages. MATERIALS AND methods: A retrospective study of 13,160 deliveries in a level III maternity unit between January 1996 and December 2001. Five hundred and forty-nine post-partum haemorrhages were diagnosed. Seventeen (0.13%) patients had a haemorrhage which did not respond to treatment using obstetric manoeuvres and uterotonic drugs. Twelve patients aged between 19 and 34 years old benefited from embolization of the uterine arteries. Nine patients had delivered by Caesarian section and three vaginally. The aetiologies found were uterine atony (n=8), placenta praevia (n=1), placenta accreta (n=1), abruptio placentae (n=1) and uterine myomas (n=1). RESULTS: The success rate of embolization was 91.6%. One failure, resulting from cardiovascular shock during the procedure, led to the patient being transferred as an emergency to the operating theatre for a haemostasis hysterectomy. It was due to placenta increta. No maternal deaths were reported. No complications because of the technique used were noted. One patient successfully delivered, following a normal pregnancy, one year after embolization. CONCLUSION: Embolization of the uterine arteries is indicated in severe post-partum haemorrhage, irrespective of the aetiology or the type of delivery. It should be offered as soon as primary management measures undertaken for haemorrhage are judged as ineffective. Its place in the treatment strategy, is in all cases before embarking on surgery, which is the final recourse in the case of failure. It is a fairly uninvasive procedure, which preserves the potential for future pregnancies.
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ranking = 4.2497655130153
keywords = haemorrhage
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4/21. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus caused by placenta percreta at 28 weeks of twin pregnancy.

    A woman at 28 weeks' gestation in a twin pregnancy developed spontaneous rupture of the uterus caused by placenta percreta. Due to severe intraabdominal haemorrhage a laparotomy was performed and the bodies and parts of the dead foetuses were removed with sutured closer of the ruptured uterus. The predisposing factors, the diagnostic approaches and the possible surgical managements of the disease are summarised.
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ranking = 0.47219616811281
keywords = haemorrhage
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5/21. Elective non-removal of the placenta and prophylactic uterine artery embolization postpartum as a diagnostic imaging approach for the management of placenta percreta: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Placenta percreta, invasion of placental tissue through the uterine wall, is a rare but potentially fatal complication of pregnancy. Historically, the diagnosis was made at laparotomy, usually during Caesarean hysterectomy. CASE: We describe a case of placenta percreta, in which the placenta was allowed to remain fixed to the uterine wall. Antenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to establish the diagnosis and guide clinical management. Elective postoperative uterine artery embolization down balloon catheters was used to prevent postpartum hemorrhage and to promote involution and shedding of the placenta. After 6 months, the uterus had involuted to the nonpregnant state. CONCLUSION: New diagnostic imaging techniques may be used to guide conservative management of placenta percreta, thereby maintaining fertility and avoiding hemorrhage, blood transfusion, and hysterectomy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = transfusion
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6/21. Expectant management of choriocarcinoma limited to placenta.

    choriocarcinoma limited to placenta was discovered "incidentally" following a seemingly uneventful term pregnancy. The newborn had unsuspected severe anemia and thrombocytopenia, due to fetomaternal hemorrhage. His recovery was good following transfusions. The mother was asymptomatic and her extensive workup for metastatic choriocarcinoma was negative. She was subsequently managed expectantly and monitored with serial serum beta-hCG, demonstrating near-logarithmic decline to non-pregnant levels within 5 weeks of delivery.
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ranking = 795.4968121691
keywords = fetomaternal, transfusion
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7/21. Placenta percreta with subsequent uterine rupture at 15 weeks of gestation after two previous cesarean sections.

    A 25-year-old gravida 3 para 2 woman was referred to our hospital at 15 weeks' gestation with an acute abdomen and free fluid in the peritoneal cavity. On admission she was somnolent. She had a history of two cesarean sections. Fetal cardiac activity was detectable by ultrasound preoperatively. Intraoperatively, a lower uterine-segment rupture was identified in the area of the presumed prior uterine incision. The great blood loss with consecutive coagulopathy required an emergency hysterectomy and multiple blood transfusions. The placenta was located on the lower anterior uterine wall. Intervening decidual cells between placenta and maternal scar tissue were absent in the area of the prior uterine incision. Placental villous tissue deeply invaded and perforated the scar tissue. Histological examination revealed a placenta percreta. Placenta percreta with subsequent uterine rupture is a rare but dramatic complication after previous cesarean section. This should be kept in mind as the rate of elective cesarean sections is rising continuously. Our patient recovered completely.
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ranking = 1
keywords = transfusion
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8/21. Fetomaternal hemorrhage caused by intraplacental choriocarcinoma: a case report and review of literature in japan.

    Fetomaternal hemorrhage induced by intraplacental choriocarcinoma is considered to be extremely rare. We herein describe a neonate with severe anemia caused by intraplacental choriocarcinoma that was histopathologically identified after birth. Furthermore, we reviewed three other such cases in japan. As a result, the incidence of intraplacental choriocarcinoma may be higher than previously estimated. Therefore, we suggest that the placenta should be examined in any suspected cases of fetomaternal hemorrhage.
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ranking = 794.4968121691
keywords = fetomaternal
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9/21. Markedly elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein associated with a normal fetus and choriocarcinoma of the placenta.

    Determination of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) has become an important screening test for a variety of fetal and maternal abnormalities. A 33-year-old multiparous white woman had a markedly elevated MSAFP level (140 multiples of the median). Extensive antepartum work-up for fetal anomalies, fetal-maternal transfusion, or maternal etiology revealed no explanation. The patient subsequently delivered a healthy male infant. Pathologic examination of the placenta demonstrated a small, discrete area of choriocarcinoma. Computed tomography showed a solitary pulmonary metastasis. Because the patient did not desire future pregnancies, a total abdominal hysterectomy was performed, followed by four courses of EMA-CO chemotherapy. Her serum hCG levels subsequently became undetectable. choriocarcinoma of the placenta must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an otherwise unexplained elevated MSAFP level.
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ranking = 1
keywords = transfusion
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10/21. Prenatal management of placental chorioangioma: value of the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity.

    Placental chorioangiomas are benign tumors of the placenta. Large chorioangiomas may cause severe complications such as fetal anemia, hydrops and fetal death. We report the use of sonographic findings and peak systolic velocity in the middle cerebral artery in the diagnosis and management of fetal anemia without the occurrence of hydrops fetalis in a pregnant woman with a large placental chorioangioma. Successful intrauterine blood transfusion was performed at 26 weeks. Spontaneous thrombosis of the main supplying blood vessel of the chorioangioma was detected at 33 weeks. The child was delivered at 39 weeks of pregnancy in normal clinical condition.
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ranking = 1
keywords = transfusion
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