Cases reported "Placenta Diseases"

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1/9. A case of massive subchorionic thrombohematoma diagnosed by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Massive subchorionic thrombohematoma is uncommon but associated with a poor perinatal prognosis. Placental enlargement was detected in a 25-year-old Japanese primipara woman with fetal growth retardation and oligohydramnios at 23 weeks' gestation. ultrasonography (USG) showed an abnormal sonolucency within the placenta at 28 weeks' gestation, but could not give an unequivocal differentiation from placental abnormalities such as hematomas, cysts and other tumors. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pointed to a large hematoma in the subchorionic region. Simultaneously, the amniotic fluid was brownish colored. From these findings, it was possible to have prenatal diagnosis of massive subchorionic thrombohematoma. At 32 weeks' gestation, the fetus died in utero and was stillborn 3 days later. Pathological findings for the placenta revealed a large hematoma diffused between the villous chorion and the chorionic plate, with wide necrosis of placental tissue, likely due to formation of multiple thrombi. The clinical and pathological findings were compatible with massive subchorionic thrombohematoma. MRI might be useful for the detection of massive subchorionic thrombohematoma and help its clinical management in combination with USG and pulse Doppler imaging.
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2/9. Fetal dna levels in maternal blood correlated with fetal prognosis in a case of intervillous hematoma.

    Several methods for detection of fetal components in maternal blood have been reported. However, few have proven clinically useful for determining the treatment in cases of placental injuries. Here, we report a case of extensive intervillous hematoma diagnosed at 25 weeks of gestation with severe intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios. Marked elevation of fetal dna levels was observed in maternal blood. Fetal dna levels decreased after 27 weeks of gestation, concurrent with recovery of fetal growth. We conservatively managed this case until 30 weeks of gestation, when a male infant was delivered. He weighed 508 g and displayed Apgar scores of 7 at 1 minute and 9 at 5 minutes. Histological examination of the placenta revealed intervillous thrombosis without infarction or inflammatory changes. In this case, decreasing fetal dna levels in maternal plasma correlated with recovery of fetal growth and provided useful information for fetal management as well as insight into the pathogenesis of placental injuries.
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3/9. Vulvar melanoma: diffuse melanosis and metastasis to the placenta.

    Mucocutaneous melanoma, including vulvar melanoma, is rare and has a worse prognosis and higher recurrence rate than traditional cutaneous melanoma. Diffuse cutaneous melanosis is another rare clinical presentation of metastatic melanoma. It is essential for dermatologists to be alerted to rare presentations of melanoma, to facilitate early detection. We present the first case to our knowledge of metastatic vulvar melanoma with diffuse cutaneous melanosis in a pregnant young woman. Despite the occurrence of placental metastasis, a healthy, unaffected baby was born. This case exemplifies the aggressiveness of vulvar melanoma. The genitalia should be included in routine total body skin examinations. pregnant women with generalized melanosis may be at increased risk for placental metastasis of melanoma. Pregnancy does not alter the incidence or prognosis of melanoma; however, patients with a poor prognosis or high recurrence risk should be informed of potential pregnancy complications associated with melanoma recurrence or metastasis.
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keywords = prognosis
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4/9. choriocarcinoma in a term placenta with maternal metastases.

    choriocarcinoma of the nonmolar placenta is presumptively a rare entity and is usually associated with widespread maternal metastases at the time of diagnosis. Nonmetastatic disease goes unrecognized and undiagnosed because placental carcinoma can be limited to a few villi, and grossly evident disease is often misinterpreted as a placental infarct. The optimal treatment for patients with choriocarcinoma of the placenta is not known but aggressive combination chemotherapy is suggested for patients with metastatic disease. Historically, the prognosis for both mother and infant has been poor.
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5/9. Placental site trophoblastic tumor presenting as subaponeurotic metastasis.

    Cases of metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) have a very poor prognosis because these tumors tend to be less sensitive to chemotherapy than other types of gestational trophoblastic disease. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman who presented with occipital tumor and abnormal vaginal bleeding. hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and occipital tumor removal revealed a primary PSTT in the uterus, with ovarian and occipital subaponeurotic metastases. She received etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin-D/cyclophosphamide, vincristine chemotherapy and had a complete clinical remission. Fifteen months later, she had a recurrent subaponeurotic occipital tumor invading the cranium and underwent tumor removal along with cranial bone followed by local irradiation. She was then treated with etoposide, cis-platinum/etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin-D chemotherapy and again had a remission for 5 months. The patient, however, had a left parietal subaponeurotic tumor, invading the dura mater, and received local irradiation. Soon after, she developed left orbital bone metastasis, treated by local irradiation. These bone metastases responded to the radiation completely. However, multiple organ metastases were found, and she died of the disease. This represents the first case of PSTT with initial subaponeurotic metastasis in a living patient. New modalities of treatment for high-risk or metastatic PSTT need to be developed.
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6/9. prenatal diagnosis of placental chorioangioma: our experience.

    Placental chorioangioma is the most common benign tumor of placenta. The relationship of vascularized chorioangiomas to adverse pregnancy outcome is well recognized. We report 3 cases of placental chorioangioma. Hypervascularization of the lesions in all patients and the immune hydrops with adverse fetal outcome in 2 cases are the complications of our mini-series. ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography findings were useful in establishing the prenatal diagnosis and the prognosis.
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7/9. fetal heart rate acceleration in relation to the oxytocin challenge test.

    fetal heart rate (FHR) acceleration was evaluated in 1570 oxytocin challenge test (OCT) results, which were performed on 565 high-risk patients. In positive OCTs a significant decrease or lack of FHR acceleration was noted. Fetuses with positive OCTs and lack of FHR acceleration were more compromised than those with better FHR acceleration.. Negative OCTs were associated with a good FHR acceleration approximately 95% of the time. Study of FHR acceleration in suspicious OCTs proved to be helpful in determining the significance and prognosis of a suspicious OCT.
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8/9. Placental metastasis from primary ocular melanoma: a case report.

    Ocular malignant melanoma, similar to the cutaneous variety, may metastasize to the placenta, almost always in the presence of widespread disease. The prognosis is poor, and there is a 25% risk of spread to the fetus. All women with a history of this disease should be informed of the risks when they are contemplating pregnancy.
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9/9. Malignancy metastatic to the products of conception: a case report with literature review.

    breast cancer is rare in adolescent females. breast cancer metastatic to the products of conception is equally uncommon. We describe a 15-year-old girl who at 30 weeks of gestation was diagnosed with metastatic adenocarcinoma of probable breast origin. The placenta showed extensive intervillous disease. Metastatic disease within the intervillous space indicates hematogenous dissemination of cancer and a poor prognosis for the mother. The infant is almost always free of maternal disease unless there is villous invasion. Hormonal changes or immunotolerance by the mother may be involved in the pathogenesis. All placentas in which maternal malignancy is known or suspected should be examined grossly and microscopically.
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