Cases reported "Placenta Previa"

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1/16. Conservative management of a case of placenta praevia percreta.

    Pregnancies complicated by placenta praevia and a history of caesarean section are associated with increased risk of placenta percreta (1). Placenta praevia percreta sometimes involves the bladder or other pelvic organ, invasion leading to genital bleeding or haematuria (2, 3). Bladder injury or uncontrollable profuse haemorrhage occasionally occurs in such patients during surgery. Examination of placental invasion is necessary as this clinical condition is severe. Treatment of placental myometrium invasion is required to prevent uncontrollable profuse haemorrhage during surgery. We present a multiparous patient who was diagnosed prenatally with placenta praevia percreta using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and who was treated conservatively with a good prognosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = haemorrhage
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2/16. Placenta percreta: report of a case.

    placenta accreta, increta, or percreta are rare but potentially lethal obstetric emergencies. Removal of abnormal growth of the placenta into the uterine wall is difficult or impossible and results in massive blood loss. hysterectomy may be necessary to save the mother's life. The common predisposing factors in development of placenta percreta are repeat cesarean and placenta previa. The diagnosis of placenta percreta may remain undiagnosed until delivery. The case presented describes a scenario involving placenta percreta with bladder involvement in which the diagnosis was known in advance. The article describes the preoperative preparation, intraoperative events, and postoperative status of this particular case.
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ranking = 7.8380058680509
keywords = blood loss
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3/16. Extrauterine abdominal pregnancy: report of a case.

    A healthy, 34-year-old, gravida 3, para 1,011, patient presented for cesarean delivery in her 35th week of gestation with a diagnosis of complete placenta previa. During her 26th week of gestation, the patient was admitted to a high-risk obstetric unit with the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes. Numerous ultrasonographic studies were conducted throughout her 10-week hospital stay, confirming the admitting diagnosis. A routine cesarean section was planned, and preparations were made for a potential increase in blood loss related to the placenta previa. The procedure began under spinal anesthesia and, upon incision of the abdomen, an extrauterine pregnancy was identified. The patient was immediately anesthetized and intubated at the request of the surgeon. During the 3-hour surgical procedure, the patient sustained massive blood loss, transfusions, central line placement, and aggressive pharmacological therapy. The patient was extubated the day after surgery, and was discharged approximately 1 week later. The only major complication was compartment syndrome of the left upper extremity related to the infiltration of vasopressors requiring fasciotomy and closure 2 days later. The incidence, morbidity/mortality, and anesthetic implications of abdominal pregnancy are reviewed.
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ranking = 15.676011736102
keywords = blood loss
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4/16. Modified cesarean hysterectomy for placenta previa percreta with bladder invasion: retrovesical lower uterine segment bypass.

    BACKGROUND: Present conservative and radical surgical management of placenta previa percreta with bladder invasion is associated with significant hemorrhage and the need for blood salvage, transfusion, and component therapy. Conventional cesarean hysterectomy strategies have high surgical morbidity, despite adequate personnel and resources. CASE: A 37-year-old, gravida 3, para 2-0-0-2, with a radiographic diagnosis of placenta previa percreta with bladder invasion, and confirmed fetal lung maturity, had a modified cesarean hysterectomy at 34 weeks' gestation. The bladder was partially mobilized beneath the percreta invasion site via the paravesical spaces. Estimated blood loss was 900 mL. Superficial placental bladder invasion was confirmed by pathology. The postoperative course was uneventful. CONCLUSION: Modified cesarean hysterectomy prevented hemorrhage and need for blood salvage, transfusion, or component therapy in managing a case of placenta previa percreta with bladder invasion.
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ranking = 7.8380058680509
keywords = blood loss
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5/16. Placenta percreta with bladder invasion as a cause of life threatening hemorrhage.

    PURPOSE: Abnormal placental penetration through the myometrium with bladder invasion is a rare obstetric complication with potential for massive blood loss. Urologists are usually consulted after a life threatening emergency has already arisen. Their familiarity with this condition is crucial for effective management. We describe 2 cases of placenta percreta with bladder invasion to highlight the catastrophic nature of this clinical entity, and review the literature on current diagnostic and management strategies. MATERIALS AND methods: Between 1986 and 1998, 250 cases of adherent placenta (0.9%) were identified in 25,254 births at our institution, including 2 (0.008%) of placenta percreta with bladder invasion. We treated these 2 multiparous women who were 33 and 30 years old, respectively. Each had undergone 2 previous cesarean sections. RESULTS: Presenting symptoms were severe hematuria in 1 patient and prepartum hemorrhage with shock in the other. Ultrasound showed complete placenta previa in each with evidence of bladder invasion in 1 patient. hysterectomy, bladder wall resection and repair, and bilateral internal iliac artery ligation were required to control massive intraoperative hemorrhage. The patients received 22 and 15 units of packed red blood cells, respectively. fetal death occurred in each case. convalescence was complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation in patient 1 but subsequent recovery was uneventful. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion for placenta percreta with bladder invasion is required when evaluating pregnant women with a history of cesarean delivery and placenta previa who present with hematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms. ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging may assist in establishing the diagnosis preoperatively. With proper planning and a multidisciplinary approach fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality may be decreased.
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ranking = 7.8380058680509
keywords = blood loss
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6/16. Hypovolaemic shock.

    Measured blood loss up to 1000 ml is well tolerated by healthy pregnant women. This is partly due to physiological increases in plasma volume and red cell mass during pregnancy. Nevertheless, hypovolaemic shock is a major cause of maternal mortality. Management requires teamwork, co-ordination, speed and adequate facilities to be life-saving. The first priority is rapid fluid replacement. Evidence from randomized trials has established that crystalloids are the fluids of choice over colloids and particularly albumen, which was associated with increased mortality. Rapid access to blood or blood products for transfusion is necessary, as well as laboratory back-up. Further management includes accurate assessment of the site of bleeding; control of the bleeding; diagnosis and management of the underlying condition; supportive therapy; and monitoring of the clinical, haematological and biochemical response to treatment. Bedside diagnostic ultrasound has several applications in the evaluation of obstetric hypovolaemic shock.
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ranking = 7.8380058680509
keywords = blood loss
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7/16. Peripartum management of a patient with dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency, a rare congenital cause of dysautonomia.

    We present the first reported case involving the peripartum anaesthetic management of dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency in a 22-year-old primigravida with high-grade placenta praevia. Elective caesarean section was performed at 36 weeks gestation with a combined spinal-epidural regional anaesthetic technique. Extensive preparation was undertaken to manage the consequences of obstetric haemorrhage and consideration given to potential pharmacological sensitivities suspected to exist in patients with this rare disorder affecting sympathetic nervous system function. An uncomplicated caesarean section was performed from which the patient recovered well to be discharged home with a healthy baby.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = haemorrhage
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8/16. Anti-shock garment provides resuscitation and haemostasis for obstetric haemorrhage.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of the non-pneumatic anti-shock garment for resuscitation and haemostasis following obstetric haemorrhage resulting in severe shock. DESIGN: During a six-week period, the author served a locum tenens as the obstetrician consultant for the Memorial Christian Hospital, Sialkot, pakistan. All women who suffered from severe obstetric haemorrhage were managed with the anti-shock garment as the first intervention. The data for this report were collected from hospital chart review. SETTING: Sialkot is a city of about three million and Memorial Christian Hospital is one of two major obstetric hospitals. There is no blood bank at Memorial Christian Hospital or elsewhere in Sialkot. The Memorial Christian Hospital laboratory is able to draw donor blood, type and cross match blood, and process it for transfusion 24 hours per day. population: During the six weeks of this study, in June and July 2001, there were 764 deliveries and 34 other admissions within a week following deliveries outside the hospital. Seven women with obstetric haemorrhage who developed severe shock were managed with the anti-shock garment. One woman, who was later found to have mitral stenosis, developed dyspnea upon placement of the anti-shock garment and therefore it was removed within 5 minutes. This report concerns the six women who were able to tolerate the anti-shock garment without untoward symptoms. methods: As soon as severe shock was recognised in the hospital, the anti-shock garment was placed. Crystalloid solutions were given intravenously over the first hour at a rate of 1500 mL per estimated litre of blood loss, then at a maintenance rate of 150 mL/hour. vital signs every 15 to 30 minutes, hourly urine output and intermittent oxygen saturation were used to monitor patients during the use of the anti-shock garment. When sufficient blood transfusion had been given to restore the haemoglobin to >7 g/dL, the anti-shock garment was removed in segments at 15-minute intervals with documentation of vital signs before removal of each subsequent portion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Restoration of mean arterial pressure of 70 mmHg and clearing of sensorium were considered as signs of effective resuscitation. Haemorrhage was considered controlled if the blood loss was less than 25 mL/hour. morbidity included any complications noted in the medical chart. RESULTS: Restoration of blood pressure and improvement of mental status occurred within 5 minutes in two patients who were pulseless and three who were unconscious or confused. All patients had improvement of mean arterial pressure to greater than 70 mmHg within 5 minutes. Duration of anti-shock garment use ranged from 12 to 36 hours and none of the six women had significant further bleeding while the anti-shock garment was in place. patients were comfortable during use of the anti-shock garment and no adverse effects were noted apart from a transient decrease in urine output. CONCLUSIONS: The anti-shock garment rapidly restored vital signs in women with severe obstetric shock. There was no further haemorrhage during or after anti-shock garment use and the women experienced no subsequent morbidity. A prospective randomised study of the anti-shock garment for management of obstetric haemorrhage is needed to further document these observations.
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ranking = 20.176011736102
keywords = blood loss, haemorrhage
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9/16. Antepartum diagnosis of placenta previa percreta by magnetic resonance imaging.

    BACKGROUND: placenta previa percreta is a rare but highly morbid condition usually diagnosed intraoperatively. Placental manipulation results in severe bleeding. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might allow antepartum diagnosis of this condition. CASE: A multiparous woman with five previous abdominal deliveries had complete placenta previa diagnosed at 16 weeks' gestation. Bleeding ensured at 29 weeks and she was managed with bed rest. Before planned abdominal delivery, MRI was performed and placenta percreta was diagnosed, which allowed her physician to avoid placental manipulation. hysterectomy was accomplished with an estimated blood loss of only 2000 mL. CONCLUSION: Antepartum diagnosis of placenta previa percreta by MRI altered the usual diagnostic and surgical approach, diminishing blood loss and morbidity.
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ranking = 15.676011736102
keywords = blood loss
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10/16. seizures and the pituitary gland during pregnancy.

    We present the anaesthetic management of a woman who, at 10 days post partum, suffered a series of convulsions in the context of two episodes of post partum haemorrhage. The probable aetiology of the convulsions is discussed.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = haemorrhage
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