Cases reported "Placental Insufficiency"

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1/3. Rapid onset of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome caused by placental venous thrombosis.

    We report a case of rapid onset of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) at 25 weeks gestation in a monochorionic twin pregnancy that was uneventful before that time. Thrombosis of a main venous branch draining several arteriovenous (AV) anastomoses to the donor changed the previous hemodynamic balance that existed between multiple bidirectional AV anastomoses. The opposing AVs became hemodynamically uncompensated and, despite amnioreductions, severe TTTS developed. At 27 weeks a cesarean section was performed because of worsening cardiotocography parameters of both fetuses. Birth weights were 750 and 1840 g, and initial hemoglobin concentrations were 9.2 and 13.4 mmol/liter for donor and recipient, respectively. The recipient twin died 5 months later of an ischemic, necrotic, and perforated small intestine due to a thrombosed superior mesenteric artery. The donor is well at 2.5 years. No abnormalities in several factors associated with thrombophilia, including factor v Leiden mutations, were found in the parents.
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ranking = 1
keywords = artery
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2/3. Placental lakes, absent umbilical artery diastolic flow and poor fetal growth in early pregnancy.

    Uteroplacental insufficiency is a common cause of intrauterine growth retardation in the third trimester of pregnancy. We report a case in which placental vascular lesions, absent end-diastolic frequencies in the umbilical artery and high maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin were observed from the beginning of the second trimester in a patient with a history of recurrent first- and second-trimester miscarriages. Fetal growth started to slow down from 14 weeks of gestation and no end-diastolic phase was found in the umbilical artery until 18 weeks of gestation, when the pregnancy was terminated. In apparently healthy women with or without a history of fetal death during the first half of pregnancy, the discovery of placental vascular lesions together with a high resistance to blood flow in the umbilical circulation should prompt early antepartum surveillance.
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ranking = 6679.9841550303
keywords = umbilical artery, umbilical, artery
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3/3. Demonstration of fetal coronary blood flow by color-coded and pulsed wave Doppler sonography: a possible indicator of severe compromise and impending demise in intrauterine growth retardation.

    We report four cases of uteroplacental insufficiency with severe intrauterine growth retardation in which coronary blood flow was demonstrated by means of color-coded and pulsed wave Doppler sonography. Intrauterine fetal compromise was indicated by pathological uterine and umbilical flow indices and decreased impedance in the cerebral vasculature. Later, this was followed by normalization of middle cerebral artery Doppler indices in one case. The latter change was associated with abnormal atrial systolic reverse blood flow initially in the inferior vena cava, then in the ductus venosus and finally resulting in pulsatile flow in the umbilical vein. In the late stage of fetal deterioration pulsatile flow in the umbilical vein was replaced by a biphasic flow pattern. In two cases coronary flow was visualized preceding intrauterine fetal death. In the two other cases a severely growth retarded newborn was delivered by cesarean section. The postnatal course was complicated by a prolonged period of circulatory insufficiency and renal failure and in one case by a persistent ductus arteriosus. Visualization of fetal coronary blood flow in severe uteroplacental insufficiency could be a preterminal event when urgent delivery may be warranted.
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ranking = 109.81848892592
keywords = umbilical, artery
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