Cases reported "Pleural Diseases"

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1/69. Treatment for empyema with bronchopleural fistulas using endobronchial occlusion coils: report of a case.

    We report herein the case of a woman with bronchopleural fistulas treated with the endobronchial placement of vascular embolization coils. She was referred to our hospital to undergo lavage of a postoperative empyema. She had undergone an air plombage operation for pulmonary tuberculosis 9 years previously. However, bronchopleural fistulas occurred postoperatively and she had to continue the use of a chest drainage tube since then. Lavage of her empyema space with 5kE of OK-432 (picibanil: Chugai) plus 100 mg minocycline was performed once every 2 weeks for 3 months, and the purulent discharge from the empyema remarkably decreased. Thereafter, the bronchopleural fistulas were occluded endobronchially by the placement of vascular embolization coils. Soon after the procedure, air leakage from the fistulas was stopped and the drainage tube was removed 2 days later. The patient remains well without any additional treatment at 20 months after this treatment. As treatment for empyema with bronchopleural fistulas, it would be worth trying to lavage the empyema space with OK-432 until it is cleaned out and to plug the fistulas by the endobronchial placement of embolization coils, before such radical operations as thoracoplasty and space-filling of the empyema are considered.
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2/69. Pleural incarceration of the gastric graft after trans-hiatal esophagectomy.

    We report on a 73-year-old man who underwent a transhiatal esophagectomy for a T2N1M0 adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus and developed an incarcerated herniation of the gastric graft through a defect in the right mediastinal pleura. The patient experienced delayed gastric emptying postoperatively, which was initially suggested by barium swallow. The gastric herniation was unidentified by early postoperative swallowing studies and endoscopies. After diagnosis by a later computed tomographic scan and barium study, the herniation was reduced by incising the mediastinal pleura from the diaphragm to the apex of the chest and by plication of the stomach longitudinally in order to reduce its intrathoracic diameter.
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3/69. nitric oxide and high frequency jet ventilation in a patient with bilateral bronchopleural fistulae and ARDS.

    PURPOSE: To describe a method of delivering nitric oxide during high frequency jet ventilation. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 63-yr-old man underwent reduction pneumoplasty for bullous emphysema. Postoperatively, ventilation was inadequate, secondary to bilateral high output bronchopleural fistulae. High frequency jet ventilation was initiated and achieved adequate ventilation (pH>7.2). Over the following 24 hr, progressive hypoxemia (SaO2 <86%) developed along with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. nitric oxide was delivered by continuous flow at the patient Y-connector during combined high frequency jet and conventional ventilation (two conventional low volume breaths/minute). Substantial improvement in oxygenation (FiO2 0.8 0.5, SaO2 >92%) was noted initially and was sustained over 72 hr. Subsequently, the patient was weaned to conventional ventilation without difficulty. Mechanical ventilation was discontinued on postoperative day sixteen. CONCLUSION: The simultaneous use of nitric oxide and high-frequency jet ventilation was used safely and effectively in this patient as a method of support for acute respiratory distress syndrome with co-existing large bilateral bronchopleural fistulae.
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4/69. Anaesthetic management for a left pneumonectomy in a child with bronchopleural fistula.

    The anaesthetic management of a left pneumonectomy in a 18-month-old girl with a bronchopleural fistula is described. An ordinary tracheal tube was slit at the bevel to ensure upper lobe ventilation on right endobronchial intubation. A combination of a bronchial blocker, endobronchial intubation with a slit tube, and nerve blocks for these manoeuvres was used. pain relief by a thoracic epidural block ensured good physiotherapy and a comfortable postoperative period.
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5/69. Gastropleural fistula as complication of postpneumonectomy empyema.

    A 54-year-old woman underwent a left pneumonectomy for monolateral congenital pulmonary cysts, complicated by a pleural empyema without bronchial fistula, in the late postoperative period. The pleural empyema was evacuated and managed by means of a small thoracic drainage. Three months after discharge the patient noticed the presence of ingesta in the pleural washing fluid. Diagnostic and operative procedures in this rare case of non malignant, non traumatic gastropleural fistula are described.
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6/69. Gastric seromuscular and omental pedicle flap for bronchopleural fistula after pneumonectomy.

    We report a case of postpneumonectomy bronchopleural fistula treated using a gastric seromuscular and omental pedicle flap and maintaining good postoperative respiratory function. A 76-year-old man underwent right pneumonectomy with regional lymph node dissection for squamous cell carcimoma of the lung. Five weeks later, a bronchopleural fistula occurred. empyema with the bronchopleural fistula was diagnosed and chest tube drainage implemented immediately. Despite the drainage, signs of inflammation persisted and the patient's nutrition did not improve leading to surgery, on August 18, 1997. The bronchopleural fistula was closed by horizontal suture proximal to the stapling sutured line. A gastric seromuscular and omental pedicle flap was sutured as a cover over the bronchial stump. Postoperative analysis of respiratory function and arterial blood gas showed good results.
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7/69. Recurrent spontaneous pneumothoraces associated with juvenile polymyositis.

    A 17-year-old man, who had received a diagnosis of juvenile polymyositis (PM) at the age of 1 year, developed recurrent spontaneous pneumothoraces and underwent surgical treatment by means of video-assisted thoracic surgery. Intraoperative observation and microscopic studies demonstrated numerous bleb-like lesions below the visceral pleura. To our knowledge, this is the first article that describes a case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with PM. Our observation should lead to broadening of the spectrum of pleuropulmonary manifestations of PM.
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8/69. paraparesis induced by inflammatory contents of a pneumonectomy cavity. Case report.

    The authors report on a patient who developed acute-onset paraparesis after underoing a thoracotomy 40 years earlier for a carcinoid adenoma. No infectious or neoplastic origin could be found to explain the patient's current clinical course and radiographic findings. The postoperative events in this case are discussed, as well as the literature regarding postthoracotomy complications.
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9/69. Tension pneumocephalus resulting from iatrogenic subarachnoid-pleural fistulae: report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: Symptomatic pneumocephalus may result from a cerebrospinal fluid leak communicating with extradural air. However, it is a rare event after thoracic surgical procedures, and its management and physiology are not widely recognized. methods: During the past 2 years, we have identified 3 patients who developed pneumocephalus after thoracotomy for tumor resection. Only 1 patient had a discernible spinal fluid leak identified intraoperatively. Two patients experienced delayed spinal fluid drainage from their chest tubes and subsequently developed profound lethargy, confusion, and focal neurologic signs. The third patient was readmitted to the hospital with a delayed pneumothorax and altered mental status. Radiographic imaging in all patients showed significant pneumocephalus of the basilar cisterns and ventricles. RESULTS: The first 2 patients were managed by discontinuation of the chest tube suction and bedrest. The third patient underwent surgical reexploration and nerve root ligation. All 3 patients had resolution of their symptoms within 72 hours. CONCLUSIONS: pneumocephalus is a rare, but serious, complication of thoracotomy. Previous patients reported in the literature have been managed with reoperation to ligate the nerve roots. However, the condition resolved nonoperatively in 2 of our patients. Discontinuation of chest tube suction may be definitive treatment and is always the important initial management to decrease cerebrospinal fluid extravasation into the pleural space and allow normalization of neurologic symptoms.
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10/69. The first histological demonstration of pancreatic oxidative stress in human acute pancreatitis.

    Necrotizing acute pancreatitis is associated with an inflammatory explosion involving numerous pro-inflammatory mediator cascades and oxidative stress. Acinar oxygen free radical production aggravates pancreatic tissue damage, and promotes cellular adhesion molecule upregulation resulting in leukocyte adherence and activation. The cerium capture oxygen free radical histochemistry combined with reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy allows the "in situ" histological demonstration of oxygen free radical formation in live tissues. Here we present a case report, where oxidative stress is demonstrated on a histological level for the first time in human acute pancreatitis. A 44-year-old male patient suffering from acute exacerbation of his chronic pancreatitis developed a pancreato-pleural fistula with amylase-rich left pleural exudate causing respiratory compromise. Subsequent to an urgent thoracic decompression a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed with the closure of abdomino-thoracic fistula. The postoperative course was uneventful, except for a transient pancreatico-cutaneous fistula, which healed after conservative treatment. To carry out cerium capture oxygen free radical histochemistry the resected pancreas specimen was readily perfused with cerium-chloride solution through the arteries on the resection surface. frozen sections were cut, E-, p-selectin, ICAM and VCAM were labeled by immunofluorescence. The tumor-free margin of an identically treated pancreas carcinoma specimen served as a control. Intrapancreatic oxidative stress and cellular adhesion molecule expression were detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Numerous pancreatic acini and neighboring capillaries showed oxygen free radical-derived cerium-perhy-droxide depositions corresponding to strong local oxidative stress. Acinar cytoplasmic reflectance signals suggested xanthine-oxidase as a source of oxygen free radicals. These areas presented considerably increased endothelial p-selectin expression with adherent, oxygen free radical-producing polymorphonuclear leukocytes displaying pericellular cerium-reflectance. Modest ICAM upregulation was noted, e-selectin and VCAM expression was negligible. The control pancreas specimen showed minimal oxidative stress with weak, focal p-selectin expression. The development of deleterious pancreatic oxidative stress was based on indirect evidence in human acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating persistent intrapancreatic oxidative stress histologically in human acute pancreatitis. We have noted p-selectin overexpression with a preponderance in the areas of acinar oxidative stress.
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