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1/31. Herpesvirus 8 inclusions in primary effusion lymphoma: report of a unique case with T-cell phenotype.

    We describe a case of primary effusion lymphoma with T-cell phenotype, mixed genotype, and intranuclear herpesvirus inclusions visible with the light microscope. cells were studied by immunohistochemical analysis, in situ hybridization, immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement, and polymerase chain reaction. Primary effusion lymphoma cells with T-cell phenotype revealed herpesvirus 8 inclusions predominantly seen in apoptotic cells, suggesting that productive viral infection is associated with cell death. Clinical features were typical of primary effusion lymphoma. Cytologic, molecular genetic, and phenotypic features demonstrated a unique variant of primary effusion lymphoma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = herpesvirus, herpes
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2/31. Human herpes virus-8 associated primary effusion lymphoma of the pleural cavity in HIV-negative elderly men.

    Human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8)-associated primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an unusual lymphoma confined to the body cavities, which primarily affects human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men at high risk for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). We describe two HIV-negative elderly Italian men, who developed pleural HHV-8-positive PEL in association with other diseases (systemic hypertension, colonic carcinoma, chronic obstructive airways disease, dilated cardiomyopathy), but without KS. Thoracic computed tomography revealed unilateral pleural effusion and pleural thickening. Thoracentesis disclosed large lymphoma cells, with no T- or B-cell associated antigens, clonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene and the presence of HHV-8 but not Epstein-Barr virus deoxyribonucleic acid sequences. Our cases differ from most pleural effusion lymphomas, in that they are non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related. This highlights the possible human herpes virus-8-associated primary effusion lymphoma risk among elderly human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients, particularly Italians, in whom human herpes virus-8 seroprevalence rates and incidence of classic Kaposi's sarcoma are high.
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ranking = 0.075204000234728
keywords = herpes
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3/31. Early peripheral lymph node involvement of human herpesvirus 8-associated, body cavity-based lymphoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient.

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), or Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, is a gamma herpesvirus first detected in a specimen of Kaposi sarcoma from a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient. Human herpesvirus 8 is also found in an unusual clinicopathologic form of body cavity-based B-cell lymphoma, which has been named primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and occurs primarily in HIV-positive patients. PEL is characterized by the formation of lymphomatous effusions, without obvious lymphadenopathy, tumor masses, or bone marrow involvement. Only a few cases of PEL in HIV-seronegative patients have been reported. We describe a case of an HHV-8-associated lymphoma, with ascites, pleural effusion, and axillary lymphadenopathy in an HIV-negative patient. The patient was a 68-year-old Jewish man of North African extraction, with a previous history of coronary bypass surgery and multiple blood transfusions. The pleural fluid contained large atypical lymphoid cells and was suggestive of lymphoma but could not provide a conclusive diagnosis of PEL. The lymph node contained groups of large anaplastic lymphoid cells. polymerase chain reaction for HHV-8 performed on the lymph node specimen was positive, establishing the diagnosis of PEL. polymerase chain reaction for Epstein-Barr virus was negative. Results of a gallium scan were normal. The patient did not respond to combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine sulfate, and prednisone and progressively developed, massive intra-abdominal solid tumor formation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of PEL that demonstrates peripheral lymph node involvement at diagnosis and the first report of PEL in an Israeli patient.
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ranking = 14.097651464997
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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4/31. Virological and molecular characterisation of a new B lymphoid cell line, established from an AIDS patient with primary effusion lymphoma, harbouring both KSHV/HHV8 and EBV viruses.

    We report here a new case of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), occurring in a French homosexual hiv-1 infected male with a pericardial, pleural and mesenteric tumour dissemination, and the establishment from his pleural effusion of a new cell line, Cra-BCBL, dually infected by EBV and KSHV/HHV8. Cra-BCBL cells are of B-cell origin as judged by their clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement, identical to that of the parental tumour. Both the cell line and the lymphoma cells expressed CD38 and CD45 antigens but no classical B-cell or T-cell lineage-restricted antigens. Cra-BCBL harbours a type I EBV virus, expressing a latency type II. Expression of KSHV/HHV8 ORF72 and ORF75 was detected by RT/PCR. In addition, KSHV lytic replication could be induced by treatment by n-butyrate. An equivalent and high copy number of KSHV genomes (20 to 200 copies by cell) was detected both in the primary tumour cells and in the cell line. Southern blot (SB) analysis of EBV terminal repeats (TR) displayed the same unique band in the cell line dna and in the original tumour cells, consistent with a monoclonal infection of EBV. Furthermore, SB analysis of KSHV/HHV8 TR revealed the same hybridisation pattern between Cra-BCBL and the effusion cells, with a common band at around 30-40 kb corresponding to the fused termini of the viral episomes and a 5 Kb rearranged fragment. The new cell line characterised here could be a useful model to study interactions between two human herpes viruses and their contribution to lymphomagenesis.
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ranking = 0.010743428604961
keywords = herpes
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5/31. CD138-positive and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-negative B-cell lymphoma with serosal spreading of the body cavity and lymphadenopathy: an autopsy case.

    CD138-positive and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV)-negative B cell lymphoma with serosal spreading of the body cavity and lymphadenopathy is presented. Our lymphoma cells showed pleomorphic morphology and a clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. Immunophenotypically, they lacked B- and T-cell-associated antigens but expressed strong membranous CD138 antigen along the serosa. Although our case was not conventional primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) because of the absence of KSHV and the presence of lymphadenopathy, its unique phenotype and serosal spreading were consistent with those of PEL. Our case suggests that, irrespective of KSHV infection, some pleomorphic B cell lymphomas with membranous CD138 expression show a peculiar serosal spreading.
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ranking = 2.010743428605
keywords = herpesvirus, herpes
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6/31. CD7 and CD56-positive primary effusion lymphoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative host.

    Primary effusion lymphoma is an entity with distinctive features. The majority of cases are diagnosed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. We report a case of pleural-based primary effusion lymphoma in an elderly patient negative for human immunodeficiency virus. By flow cytometry, lymphoma cells expressed CD7, CD38, CD45, CD56, HLA-DR, and kappa surface light chains. A monoclonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain and the presence of human herpesvirus 8 genome were detected. Our case lacked CD30 or CD138 with expression of surface light chains. There was strong expression of CD7 and CD56. These findings are unusual or unique in primary effusion lymphoma. Our report suggests that aberrant expression of T cell and natural killer cell markers can be seen in primary effusion lymphoma.
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ranking = 3.0244128662492
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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7/31. Primary effusion lymphomas in AIDS: CT findings in two cases.

    Primary effusion lymphomas represent an unusual subset of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. They are associated with herpes virus 8 and Epstein-Barr virus and characterized by predominant involvement of the serous body cavities (pleura, pericardium, peritoneum) as lymphomatous effusion without any identifiable tumour mass. We report herein CT findings in two patients with primary effusion lymphoma emphasizing the possible neoplastic nature of a pleural effusion in a patient with AIDS.
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ranking = 0.010743428604961
keywords = herpes
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8/31. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) in HIV-negative patients--a distinct clinical entity.

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a recently described rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma occurring almost exclusively in HIV infected people. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), has been linked with PEL, and a causative relationship has been suggested. In the vast majority of PEL cases Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been found in the tumour cells. We describe here an elderly human immune deficiency (HIV) seronegative man with intractable chest pain and pleural effusion. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was suggested cytologically and confirmed histologically following pleural biopsy. No lymphadenopathy or organ involvement with lymphoma was found. Systemic chemotherapy with a modified CHOP regimen with G-CSF support gradually led to the resolution of the chest pain and ultimately resulted in a complete clinical remission (CCR). The presence of HHV-8 was demonstrated by PCR using paraffin-embedded tissue samples from the involved pleura, whereas EBV-associated genetic material was absent. The patient remained in CCR for 18 months and died of an unrelated cause (cerebrovascular event). Only 11 other cases with clinical and virological features similar to those of our patient have been reported in the literature. Analysis of these rare cases suggests HIV-negative EBV-negative PEL to be a distinct clinical entity with epidemiological features resembling classical KS and supports an EBV-independent role for HHV-8 in the pathogenesis of PEL.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = herpesvirus, herpes
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9/31. AIDS-related body cavity-based lymphoma. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Body cavity-based lymphomas are rare malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but because of their unusual clinical, morphologic and immunophenotypic features, they are recognized as a distinct subgroup of lymphomas connected to human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection. CASE: A 39-year-old, HIV-positive, homosexual man was admitted to the hospital because of a left-sided pleural effusion that contained malignant lymphoid cells. He responded partially to a low-dose cyclophosphamide/doxorubycin/vincristine/prednisone regimen and died five months after the diagnosis of lymphoma. On cytology, the sediments contained exclusively large, round, neoplastic, lymphoid cells with abundant basophilic cytoplasm and large, round nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Many cells had immunoblastic features, and some had plasmocytoid differentiation. Mitotic figures were numerous. On flow cytometry, the homogeneous population of large cells expressed CD45, CD38, HLA-DR and CD7 positivity. Other specific T-, B- and NK-cell markers tested negative. polymerase chain reaction demonstrated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and HHV-8 in the malignant effusion. CONCLUSION: Primary effusion from lymphoma with molecular evidence of HHV-8 and EBV coinfection represents a distinct clinical and morphologic entity in AIDS patients. However, immunophenotypic markers of malignant clones can be diverse in different cases.
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ranking = 3.0244128662492
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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10/31. Primary pleural effusion posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder: Distinction from secondary involvement and effusion lymphoma.

    pleural effusion presentation of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is relatively uncommon. Most examples of effusion-based PTLD have been secondary to widespread solid organ involvement, and are associated with an aggressive clinical course. We report on a case of primary effusion PTLD in a 70-yr-old male liver transplant recipient with a history of hepatitis b infection. Cytomorphologically, the pleural fluid specimen showed a monomorphous population of intermediate to large-sized transformed lymphoid cells, with irregular multilobated nuclear contours and readily identifiable mitotic figures. Flow cytometric immunophenotypic studies revealed a CD5-negative, CD10-negative, lambda immunoglobulin light chain-positive, monoclonal B-lymphocyte (CD19-positive/CD20-positive) population. The immunocytochemical stain for CD30 antigen was negative. in situ hybridization study for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early rna (EBER) and Southern blot analysis for EBV terminal repeat sequences were both positive. Southern blot analysis for human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) was negative. No solid-organ PTLD was identified, and the cytologic results supported the diagnosis of primary effusion PTLD. immunosuppression was decreased, and 8 mo following the diagnosis of pleural fluid PTLD, the patient was stable and his pleural effusion had markedly diminished. Recognition of primary effusion PTLD and its distinction from PTLD secondarily involving the body fluids and from other lymphomas is important, since the behavior and prognosis appear different.
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ranking = 0.010743428604961
keywords = herpes
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