Cases reported "Pleural Effusion"

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1/35. Congenital pleuroperitoneal communication in a patient with pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome is a rare disease arising from a perforated appendiceal adenoma. The syndrome is characterized by progressive accumulation of mucinous ascites and tumor within the peritoneal cavity. Direct extension of pseudomyxoma peritonei to the pleural cavity is uncommon and has been associated with surgical penetration of the diaphragm at the time of cytoreduction. methods: We review the case of a patient who presented with mucoid peritoneal and pleural fluid consistent with spontaneous pleural spread of pseudomyxoma peritonei. RESULTS: Surgical exploration confirmed direct pleuroperitoneal communication by macroscopic diaphragmatic fenestration. CONCLUSIONS: This is a rare phenomenon. We outline a therapeutic approach to be applied when pleural involvement is suspected in patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome.
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2/35. Hepatic hydatid cyst rupturing into sub-diaphragmatic space and pericardial cavity.

    A ten-year-old male child presented with a large hepatic hydatid cyst which ruptured into the sub-diaphragmatic space and pericardial cavity, giving rise to a pericardial effusion. This communication between the hydatid cyst and the pericardium was documented on computerised tomographic scan of the chest and abdomen. The cyst was aspirated carefully and then enucleated. There was an associated right-sided reactionary pleural effusion. The pericardial effusion and pleural effusion resolved on albendazole therapy and did not require surgical intervention.
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3/35. death due to bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: report of 2 patients.

    On October 9, 2001, a letter containing anthrax spores was mailed from new jersey to washington, DC. The letter was processed at a major postal facility in washington, DC, and opened in the Senate's Hart Office Building on October 15. Between October 19 and October 26, there were 5 cases of inhalational anthrax among postal workers who were employed at that major facility or who handled bulk mail originating from that facility. The cases of 2 postal workers who died of inhalational anthrax are reported here. Both patients had nonspecific prodromal illnesses. One patient developed predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. The other patient had a "flulike" illness associated with myalgias and malaise. Both patients ultimately developed dyspnea, retrosternal chest pressure, and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. leukocytosis and hemoconcentration were noted in both cases prior to death. Both patients had evidence of mediastinitis and extensive pulmonary infiltrates late in their course of illness. The durations of illness were 7 days and 5 days from onset of symptoms to death; both patients died within 24 hours of hospitalization. Without a clinician's high index of suspicion, the diagnosis of inhalational anthrax is difficult during nonspecific prodromal illness. Clinicians have an urgent need for prompt communication of vital epidemiologic information that could focus their diagnostic evaluation. Rapid diagnostic assays to distinguish more common infectious processes from agents of bioterrorism also could improve management strategies.
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4/35. Bilateral pleural effusions: unexpected complication after left internal jugular venous catheterization for total parenteral nutrition.

    Bilateral pleural effusions occurred after total parenteral nutrition was administered via a left internal jugular venous line. The most likely explanation for the fluid passage into both pleural cavities was migration of the tip of the catheter from within the vein into the mediastinum. Fluid can pass into both pleural cavities via anatomical communications, yet to be described, which exist between the two pleural cavities.
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5/35. Confirmation of dialysate leakage by intraperitoneal administration of radioactive colloid.

    A 29-year-old man who had been on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) was admitted to our hospital because of pleural effusion. Radioactive colloid studies with intraperitoneal administration revealed a pleuroperitoneal communication. After pleurodesis by the administration of fibrin glue and antiplasmin into the thoracic cavity, the pleural effusion did not reaccumulate and there was no evidence of pleuroperitoneal communication by radioactive colloid study.
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6/35. Peritoneal-mediastinal leakage complication of peritoneal dialysis.

    The authors report a case of mediastinal fluid collection resulting from peritoneal-mediastinal communication after continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case in the medical literature. A dry cough developed in the patient who had been receiving CAPD for 4 years. A mediastinal mass owing to peritoneal leakage of dialysate to the mediastinum was confirmed by a computed tomography scan taken 4 hours after the intraperitoneal infusion of contrast-mixed dialysate. The leakage persisted for 12 weeks after the discontinuation of CAPD fluid instillation.
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7/35. Mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst with recurrent pleural effusion. Demonstration by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram and subsequent computed tomography scan.

    Mediastinal pseudocysts of internal pancreatic fistulas are rare as a cause of bilateral pleural effusions even in relapsing pancreatitis. We describe a 38-year-old man with recurrent bilateral pleural effusion as a complication of a pancreatic pseudocyst. Extension of a pancreatic pseudocyst into the posterior mediastinum was clearly identified by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram and subsequent computed tomography scan of the abdomen and chest, and the complication was successfully treated by surgical management. We stress the importance of definite assessment of the communication of pancreatic pseudocyst with mediastinum in patients with pancreatitis who develop recurrent pleural effusions.
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8/35. Fenestration in extracardiac conduits in children after modified Fontan operation by implantation of stent grafts.

    Three patients (ages 3, 5, and 8 years) with various forms of functionally univentricular heart lesions received a total cavopulmonary connection with an extracardiac conduit as a final reconstructive procedure. Failure of the Fontan circulation occurred immediately after surgery because of spontaneous closure of surgical fenestrations in two children and absent fenestration in one. As an emergency procedure, in all patients the conduit was perforated by transcatheter intervention in order to create a connection to the anatomical right atrium. Following balloon dilatation of the perforated conduit, in all three patients covered stent grafts were placed in the newly created defect to attain a reliable communication. Patency of the fenestration was demonstrated by angiogram and any leakage was ruled out. cardiac output improved and severe pleural effusion and ascites subsided. Right-to-left shunt could be demonstrated by echocardiography at follow-up after 7 months (median) in all three patients. oxygen saturation remained stable between 85 and 90%. These preliminary results suggest that stent graft fenestration can serve as a valuable tool in failing Fontan circulation, particularly in patients with an extracardiac conduit. Covered stents have the potential to reduce the acute risk of bleeding and they help to prevent early spontaneous closure of the newly created fenestration.
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9/35. intracranial hypotension and recurrent pleural effusion after snow-boarding injury: a manifestation of cerebrospinal fluid-pleural fistula.

    BACKGROUND DATA: intracranial hypotension causing postural headaches has been described after occult and postsurgical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks and rarely isolated lumbar punctures. The occurrence of a CSF-pleural communication is much rarer, and a high level of suspicion aids in prompt recognition. PURPOSE: Early detection and anatomic delineation of the site of CSF-pleural fistula allows prompt intervention, results in resolution of symptoms and prevents the complication of meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: A case of intracranial hypotension with postural headaches is described after spinal surgery, with demonstration on computed tomography (CT) myelography of a rare CSF-pleural fistula. methods: The clinical presentation, postoperative intervention and imaging as well as laboratory data are presented. RESULTS: Chest X-ray showed recurrent pleural effusion after placement of chest tube, and serial head CT studies revealed decreasing ventricular size with development of severe headaches. Myelogram and CT postmyelogram demonstrate the CSF-pleural communication, allowing appropriate surgical repair. CONCLUSION: Severe headaches with a recurrent pleural effusion after thoracic spinal surgery may indicate presence of a CSF-pleural fistula, an unusual complication of thoracic spinal surgery.
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10/35. Successful resolution of a mediastinal pseudocyst and pancreatic pleural effusion by endoscopic nasopancreatic drainage.

    CONTEXT: A mediastinal pseudocyst is an unusual complication of acute and chronic pancreatitis. The ideal form of management is controversial, and various successful therapeutic interventions including surgical resection, internal or external drainage, and non-operative radiological drainage techniques have been described. Successful resolution of a mediastinal pseudocyst with endoscopic transpapillary stent placement has been described in fewer than five cases. CASE REPORT: We report a case of chronic pancreatitis with complete pancreas divisum together with a mediastinal pseudocyst and pancreatic pleural effusion in which magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography demonstrated communication of the abdominal pseudocyst with the posterior mediastinum through the diaphragmatic hiatus. This case was successfully treated with endoscopic transpapillary nasopancreatic drain placement alone. CONCLUSION: A communicating mediastinal pseudocyst can be successfully treated by endoscopic transpapillary nasopancreatic drainage alone.
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