Cases reported "Pleurisy"

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1/47. Bilateral pleuritis caused by legionella micdadei.

    A 58-year-old woman was hospitalized because of progressive respiratory distress. She had a history of myasthenia gravis and invasive thymoma. After thymectomy, she had been administered oral prednisolone and intrathoracic anti-cancer drugs postoperatively. Her chest radiograph revealed bilateral pleural effusions. legionella micdadei (L. micdadei) was isolated from the pleural effusions, and she was diagnosed as pleuritis caused by L. micdadei. She died despite intensive therapy with mechanical ventilation, drainage tube in the chest and intravenous erythromycin. Although only two cases of legionellosis caused by L. micdadei have been reported in japan, clinicians should be aware of L. micdadei as one of the candidates for infection in immunosuppressed hosts.
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2/47. Serosal complications of single-agent low-dose methotrexate used in gestational trophoblastic diseases: first reported case of methotrexate-induced peritonitis.

    methotrexate (MTX) is a folate antagonist widely used both as an anticancer drug and as an immunosupressant. Administration of an 8-day methotrexate and folinic acid regime may be associated with pleuritic chest pain and pneumonitis. We have reviewed the toxicity seen in 168 consecutive patients treated with low-dose MTX for persistent trophoblastic disease. Twenty-five per cent of patients developed serosal symptoms, pleurisy was the commonest complaint. The majority of patients had mild to moderate symptoms which were controlled with simple analgesia and did not necessitate a change in treatment; 11.9% had severe symptoms which necessitated a change in treatment. One patient developed a pericardial effusion and a second patient developed severe reversible peritoneal irritation. The possible aetiology and pathophysiology of methotrexate-induced serosal toxicity is discussed.
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3/47. The postpericardiotomy syndrome as a cause of pleurisy in rehabilitation patients.

    Pleuritic chest pain in patients on a rehabilitation unit may be caused by several conditions. We report 2 cases of postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) as a cause of pleuritic pain. PPS occurs in 10% to 40% of patients who have coronary bypass or valve replacement surgery. The syndrome is characterized by fever, chest pain, and a pericardial or pleural friction rub. Its etiology is believed to be viral or immunologic. The syndrome can be a diagnostic challenge, and an increase in length of hospitalization because of it has been documented. Identified risk factors for PPS include age, use of prednisone, and a history of pericarditis. A higher incidence has been reported from May through July. Many patients undergo a battery of expensive procedures before PPS is diagnosed. The pain is sharp, associated with deep inspiration, and changes with position. Pleural effusions may be present and tend to occur bilaterally. Pericardial effusions are a documented complication. A pericardial or pleural rub may be present and is often transient. Serial auscultation is important. Laboratory work provides clues with a mild leukocytosis and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. However, this does not provide the definitive diagnosis. Cardiac enzymes are not reliably related to the syndrome. An electrocardiogram will show changes similar to those associated with pericarditis. The patient may have a fever, but it is rarely higher than 102.5 degrees F. Complications include pericardial effusions, arrhythmias, premature bypass graft closure, and cardiac tamponade. Treatment consists of a 10-day course of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
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4/47. mycobacterium avium complex pleuritis accompanied by diabetes mellitus.

    A 72-year-old woman with diabetic nephropathy was hospitalized with peripheral edema in the extremities and weight increase. After diuretics and human serum albumin administration, her condition improved. From the 15th day she had run a subfever and her breathing was diminished in the left lower lung field. A plain chest x-ray film showed pleural effusion over the left lung field. The fluid was exudative. Fluid cultures were negative. A tuberculin reaction was negative. polymerase chain reaction method disclosed mycobacterium avium complex, indicating rare pleuritis due to mycobacterium avium complex. Eighteen days after chemotherapy, pleural effusion disappeared. Although her hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were maintained from 6.0 to 6.5% over 4 years, urinary albumin excretion levels and serum creatinine levels increased, indicating deteriorating diabetic nephropathy. serum albumin levels remained low (3.3-3.6 g/dl). malnutrition, impaired cellular immunity and apparently abnormal microvascular circulation due to diabetes mellitus may consequently have induced pleuritis due to mycobacterium avium complex.
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5/47. Successful management of pleuritic pain with thoracic paravertebral block.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) is a unilateral analgesic technique that has been advocated in both acute and chronic thoracic and abdominal pain. Other blocks such as interpleural and epidural can be effectively used in pleuritic pain. This report illustrates that TPVB could also be effective for this kind of pain. methods: A 45-year-old man with acute pancreatitis was referred to the critical care unit 11 days after emergency admission with severe left pleural effusion and acute respiratory failure. His medical history revealed hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); in addition, he was a heavy drinker and smoker. A pleuritic pain that only slightly improved with nonopioid analgesics and opioids resulted in the patient's increasing inability to eliminate bronchial secretions. In an attempt to avoid endotracheal intubation, the pain unit recommended a continuous paravertebral block. The block was performed at T9 on the left side. An initial bolus of 15 mL bupivacaine 0.25% was administered and a continuous infusion, initially at 5 mL/h, was increased up to 10 mL/h to achieve the desired analgesic effect. RESULTS: After the block the verbal analogue scale decreased from 9 to 3, and this level of pain relief was maintained until the end of the treatment 48 hours after the block. The patient improved and was discharged to the ward without the need for endotracheal intubation. CONCLUSIONS: This case report supports the notion that, in practice, the paravertebral block could be an effective and safe alternative to relief of pleuritic pain.
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6/47. prognosis of patients with rounded atelectasis undergoing long-term hemodialysis.

    We present 4 patients undergoing hemodialysis in whom thoracic computed tomography (CT) suggested a diagnosis of rounded atelectasis (RA) with pleural effusion. The clinical setting and follow-up CT of all 4 patients confirmed this diagnosis. The pleural fluid of each appeared serosanguineous or hemorrhagic and predominantly consisted of lymphocytes. Biochemical analysis of this fluid revealed high levels of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase and glucose. Bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction for mycobacterium tuberculosis dna was negative. Pleural biopsy specimens from 2 of the 4 patients showed evidence of fibrinous change and mesothelial cell hyperplasia. pleural effusion from all 4 patients did not respond to either fluid restriction or aggressive hemodialysis-induced dehydration. The subsequent clinical course and thoracentesis were repeated, and in 1 patient, this was followed by tetracycline pleurodesis. However, 2 patients died during pre-pleurodesis and 1 died during post-pleurodesis, all due to respiratory failure. We propose that the clinical setting and follow-up thoracic CT and thoracentesis of patients receiving long-term hemodialysis confirmed a diagnosis of rounded atelectasis with uremic pleural effusion. We also propose that the prognosis of patients with refractory pleural effusion receiving long-term hemodialysis would be improved by early pleurodesis.
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7/47. Bilateral massive pleural effusions caused by uremic pleuritis.

    A 61-year-old man was started on hemodialysis in June 1998. Just after the commencement of dialysis, a chest x-ray film revealed bilateral pleural effusions. The effusions were hemorrhagic and exudative, and did not respond to dialysis. He was transferred to our university hospital on October 8,1998. Repeated thoracentesis demonstrated hemorrhagic and exudative characteristics without any diagnostic evidence. Pleural biopsies showed fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration. The effusions were massive and did not respond to treatments including hemodialysis, repeatedly performed pleurodesis and the administration of antituberculous drugs. He died of respiratory failure on December 30, 1998. The autopsy confirmed bilateral fibrinous pleuritis without any underlying infections or malignancy. We diagnosed this case as uremic pleuritis from this clinical course and the autopsy findings. The clinical entity of uremic pleuritis was recognized as a complication of patients with hemodialysis in 1969. Uremic pleuritis generally responds to continued hemodialysis and the prognosis is usually good. However, some case reports demonstrated that surgical decortication is only indicated in cases with a severe clinical course. The clinical course of the present case was progressive and fatal. Uremic pleuritis is a serious complication of hemodialysis, which may lead to death.
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8/47. Pleuritis as a presenting manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis: diagnostic clues in pleural fluid cytology.

    pleural effusion is a recognized but relatively uncommon complication of rheumatoid arthritis and has distinctive cytopathologic features. It may occur before, concurrently with, or after the development of joint manifestations of the disease. Clinical diagnosis of rheumatoid pleuritis may be delayed or overlooked in a patient without obvious evidence of arthritis. Failure to recognize the unique cytologic picture of rheumatoid pleuritis caused a 5-month delay in diagnosis of a rheumatoid pleural effusion in an elderly man whose concurrent arthritic symptoms were not given adequate clinical recognition.
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9/47. Pulmonary actinomycosis followed by pericarditis and intractable pleuritis.

    A case of pleuropericarditis caused by actinomyces israelli is described. The patient first underwent left upper lobectomy because of pulmonary actinomycosis. Seven months later, cardiac tamponade developed. culture of the bloody pericardial effusion resulted in positive growth of actinomyces israeli. He was successfully treated with penicillin g, ampicillin, and minocyclin. However, right pleural effusion appeared two months later. Cultures of the effusion again yielded positive growth of the same bacteria. However, the strain had gained resistance to any antibiotics that had been effective before. Accordingly, pleurodesis with minocyclin was undertaken, which was fortunately effective for controlling the pleural effusion.
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10/47. Fibrothorax and severe lung restriction secondary to lupus pleuritis and its successful treatment by pleurectomy.

    Pleural disease is a common pulmonary manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that usually responds to corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents. In the present report, a new approach, pleural decortication, was used in a patient with medically refractory chronic pleuritis secondary to severe SLE. A 26-year-old woman with known SLE developed progressive dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain over several months. The other systemic manifestations of her lupus were controlled with cyclophosphamide and prednisone. A computed tomography scan revealed a persistent, small, loculated right pleural effusion; pleural thickening; and atelectasis of the right middle and lower lobes. Pulmonary function tests showed a severe restrictive defect. The patient was disabled by her severe dyspnea despite maximal medical therapy, and, therefore, surgery was considered. A right thoracotomy revealed entrapment of the right lung by dense visceral pleura. Decortication was performed. On pathology, pleuritis with vascular pleural adhesions was found. No lupus pneumonitis was noted. Postoperatively, a significant clinical improvement in dyspnea was evident within several weeks. On a 6 min walk test, the patient achieved 384 m with a Borg dyspnea scale rating of 2 compared with 220 m and a Borg dyspnea scale rating of 4 preoperatively. Her forced vital capacity improved from 24% predicted to 47% predicted, and her total lung capacity improved from 35% predicted to 54% predicted. Medical therapy of systemic lupus erythematosus has been proven to be effective in controlling pleuritis in most cases. However, in the event of refractory pleuritis or pleural thickening, decortication may be a viable alternative.
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