Cases reported "Pneumocephalus"

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1/77. Intracerebral pneumatocele: an unusual complication following intraventricular drainage in case of benign intracranial hypertension.

    The development of an intracerebral pneumatocele following ventricular catheterization for benign intracranial hypertension is described. The importance of skull radiography in the diagnosis of this previously unreported complication ist emphasized. This case demonstrates that air can accumulate without the need to implicate increased pharyngeal pressure, and despite raised intracranial pressure.
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ranking = 1
keywords = skull
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2/77. pneumocephalus associated with ethmoidal sinus osteoma--case report.

    A 35-year-old female suffered sudden onset of severe headache upon blowing her nose. No rhinorrhea or signs of meningeal irritation were noted. Computed tomography (CT) with bone windows clearly delineated a bony mass in the right ethmoid sinus, extending into the orbit and intracranially. Conventional CT demonstrated multiple air bubbles in the cisterns and around the mass in the right frontal skull base, suggesting that the mass was associated with entry of the air bubbles into the cranial cavity. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a low-signal lesion that appeared to be an osteoma but did not show any air bubbles. Through a wide bilateral frontal craniotomy, the cauliflower-like osteoma was found to be protruding intracranially through the skull base and the overlying dura mater. The osteoma was removed, and the dural defect was covered with a fascia graft. Histological examination confirmed that the lesion was an osteoma. The operative procedure resolved the problem of air entry. CT is superior to MR imaging for diagnosing pneumocephalus, by providing a better assessment of bony destruction and better detection of small amounts of intracranial air.
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ranking = 2
keywords = skull
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3/77. An unusual case of otogenic pneumocephalus.

    Otogenic pneumocephalus is a rare entity usually caused by temporal bone trauma. This paper describes a case of otogenic pneumocephalus of traumatic origin, in which the type of the fracture (a bony spicula was detached from the mastoid) and the location (Trautmann's triangle) were uncommon.
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ranking = 0.71705316589351
keywords = fracture
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4/77. temporal bone fracture following blunt trauma caused by a flying fish.

    Blunt trauma to the temporal region can cause fracture of the skull base, loss of hearing, vestibular symptoms and otorrhoea. The most common causes of blunt trauma to the ear and surrounding area are motor vehicle accidents, violent encounters, and sports-related accidents. We present an obscure case of a man who was struck in the ear by a flying fish while wading in the sea with resulting temporal bone fracture, sudden deafness, vertigo, cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea, and pneumocephalus.
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ranking = 5.302318995361
keywords = skull, fracture
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5/77. Atraumatic pneumocephalus: a case report and review of the literature.

    pneumocephalus or air within the cranial vault is usually associated with disruption of the skull caused by head trauma, neoplasms, or after craniofacial surgical interventions. We report a child who presented with headache and the pathognomonic "succussion splash" and was found to have atraumatic pneumocephalus from forceful valsalva maneuvers. pneumocephalus forms, caused by either a ball-valve mechanism that allows air to enter but not exit the cranial vault, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, which create a negative pressure with subsequent air entry. We review the literature for traumatic and atraumatic causes of pneumocephalus, its complications, and therapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = skull
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6/77. Delayed spontaneous tension pneumocephalus caused by radionecrosis of the skull base.

    We report a case of spontaneous tension pneumocephalus which occurred 6 years after radiotherapy for a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A skull base defect and nasocranial fistula causing tension pneumocephalus was identified, and was repaired successfully. It proved to be due to skull base osteoradionecrosis.
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ranking = 6
keywords = skull
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7/77. pneumocephalus associated with aqueductal stenosis: three-dimensional computed tomographic demonstration of skull-base defects.

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement in patients with aqueductal stenosis has recently been reported as a cause of pneumocephalus. We report on a patient with pneumocephalus associated with aqueductal stenosis treated by VP shunting. A 29-year-old woman who had undergone a shunt operation for aqueductal stenosis 7 years previously sustained a whiplash injury in a minor traffic accident. Computed tomography (CT) revealed massive subdural pneumocephalus, and three-dimensional reconstructions of CT images clearly demonstrated defects in the skull base overlying the ethmoid sinuses. Both endoscopic III ventriculostomy and placement of external ventricular drainage were came free of symptoms and rhinorrhea ceased. Three-dimensionally reconstructed CT images were useful in detecting the extent of the patient's skull base defect. III ventriculostomy was not effective in this case. Direct closure of the skull base by craniotomy was not necessary, and a programmable valve system was effective in preventing recurrence of either pneumocephalus or rhinorrhea.
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ranking = 7
keywords = skull
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8/77. Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) in skull base repairs and CSF leakage.

    This report aims to summarise the current role of Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery (EES) for skull base and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage repair, to provide some guidelines for the clinical diagnosis and technical procedures of repair, to demonstrate the limits of this approach and to discuss the Belgian experience of the recent years. Endoscopic surgery for chronic sinus disease is being performed with increasing frequency and CSF leak is an significant potential complication of this surgery, although the incidence of osteo-meningeal perforations in endonasal sinus surgery is below 1% overall. CSF leakage bears the risk of meningeal or intracranial infection and complication and therefore should be repaired as soon as recognised. Following proper localisation of the leak, repair is safely performed in most of the cases by endonasal route with the help of free mucoperiostal flaps taken from the inferior or middle turbinates. This also applies for lesions of other aetiologies. The Belgian data support the statement that the endonasal endoscopic approach is a suitable and successful technique to close CSF leaks in the vast majority of our patients.
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ranking = 5
keywords = skull
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9/77. Subdural air limits the elicitation of compound muscle action potentials by high-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation.

    High-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation was performed in 8 patients undergoing surgery in the sitting position. Following the opening of the dura of the posterior fossa changes in compound muscle action potentials were observed. These changes were not attributable to surgical manoeuvres at the brain stem or spinal cord, or to anaesthetic changes. In all these cases intraoperative fluoroscopy of the skull revealed a subdural air collection underneath the stimulation electrodes. Such a subdural air collection, not infrequent in patients operated on in the sitting position, limits the application of high-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation as a monitoring technique. It remains unclear if this effect is due to the increasing distance between scalp and cortex and the insulating effect of subdural air, or due to displacement of the motor cortex. The practical importance of this report is derived from the increasing application of intraoperative motor pathway monitoring.
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ranking = 1
keywords = skull
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10/77. Subdural and intraventricular traumatic tension pneumocephalus: case report.

    Simple pneumocephalus most frequently arises as a complication of a head injury in which a compound basal skull fracture with tearing of the meninges allows entry of air into the cranial cavity. It can also follow a neurosurgical operation. Tension traumatic pneumocephalus with intraventricular extension is an extremely rare, potentially lethal condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of subdural and intraventricular accidental tension pneumocephalus occurring in a 26-year-old man as a result of skull fracture. This case is combined with rhinorrhea and meningitis that suggest some difficulties to treat. The operative procedure associated with medical treatment was performed and a good result was obtained.
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ranking = 41.864473061978
keywords = skull fracture, skull, fracture
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