Cases reported "Pneumonia, Aspiration"

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1/20. anesthesia for insertion of a Dumon stent in a patient with a large tracheo-esophageal fistula.

    PURPOSE: To present the anesthetic management for the insertion of a Dumon silicon stent to the trachea of a patient with a large tracheo-esophageal fistula. The aim of the stent insertion was to seal the fistula in order to prevent aspiration of esophageal content and subsequent pneumonitis. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 45-yr-old man with a large tracheo-esophageal fistula was scheduled for the insertion of the Dumon stent. Since placement of the stent necessitates the insertion of a rigid bronchoscope, under general anesthesia, with its tip just proximal to the fistula, controlled ventilation was expected to be difficult to achieve because of the diversion of oxygen through the large fistula to the esophagus. We successfully ventilated the lungs, after the fistula was sealed using a large balloon which was inserted in the esophagus, and the stent insertion was completed uneventfully. CONCLUSION: anesthesia for procedures involving the central airway is challenging. This report describes a simple and practical method to facilitate ventilation by temporary seal of a tracheo-esophageal fistula using a modified esophageal balloon.
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2/20. Gastric tube-to-tracheal fistula closed with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap.

    A gastric tube-to-airway fistula is a very rare complication after esophageal reconstruction. A patient with a gastric tube-to-tracheal fistula that developed more than 9 years after surgery for cancer of the cervical esophagus was treated with transposition of a pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. Careful perioperative respiratory management helped save the patient's life.
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3/20. Aspiration pneumonitis following papain enzyme treatment for oesophageal meat impaction.

    We report a case of aspiration pneumonitis following the use of papain enzyme in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with meat impacted in his oesophagus.
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4/20. Congenital bronchoesophageal fistula and tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia.

    A case of initial esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula in a female newborn, later complicated by pneumonia and a second bronchoesophageal fistula, is reported. She was treated surgically by closure of the tracheoesophageal fistula and by end-to-end esophago-esophageal anastomosis. An esophagram at 1 month of age was normal. Three months later she developed severe, persistent right lower lobe pneumonia that required intensive antibiotic therapy and respiratory support. Esophagography was repeated and revealed a second fistula between the right main-stem bronchus and the lower esophagus. The bronchoesophageal fistula was repaired, and a right lower lobectomy was performed. Postoperative recovery was uncomplicated. Histologic examination indicated that the fistula was congenital in origin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a congenital bronchoesophageal fistula coexisting with a tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia.
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5/20. Surgical revision of dysfunctional colonic interposition after esophagoplasty.

    The redundancy and dysfunction of colonic interpositions is a recognized late complication of esophageal replacement, often occurring decades after the original surgery. A 34-year-old man, whose long-gap esophageal atresia was corrected as a child with large bowel interposition, presented with severe dysphagia and recurrent aspiration pneumonia. Imaging and endoscopy revealed a grossly abnormal and dysfunctional neo-esophagus. Symptoms were refractory to medical therapies, and necessitated occupational retirement on medical grounds. His case illustrates a successful surgical technique for correcting this complication.
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6/20. Gastrografin-induced aspiration pneumonia: a lethal complication of computed tomography.

    A 43-year-old man with dysphagia and a tendency to aspirate was found to have squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Curative surgery was planned and preoperative computed tomography of the chest and abdomen was ordered. A ward nurse administered Gastrografin according to a "standing" order, 4 hours before the CT was to be done. The patient aspirated about 50 mL of Gastrografin, and went into cardiorespiratory arrest caused by pulmonary edema. He sustained severe brain damage and died. This is a first report of lethal aspiration of Gastrografin, given in preparation for CT. We advise alerting nurses who administer Gastrografin, especially to patients with dysphagia or impaired consciousness about the grave consequences that can result if the contrast agent is aspirated by the patient. We further advise that responsibility for using contrast agents in radiologic procedures be assumed by the radiologist and not by medical house staff.
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7/20. Massive aspiration of barium sulfate during an upper gastrointestinal examination in a child with dysphagia.

    barium sulfate is an agent used widely as a contrast material for imaging studies of the gastrointestinal tract and is not inherently toxic to lung tissue. Aspiration of barium sulfate has been reported on rare occasions, but is more frequently seen in patients with underlying anatomical or neurological defects such as head and neck deformity, esophageal stricture, diverticulum or fistula. We report a previously healthy child suffered from massive aspiration of barium sulfate during the investigation of dysphagia due to an impacted foreign body in the esophagus. Massive aspiration of barium sulfate is potentially life-threatening because of mechanical interference with gas exchange. An obstruction of the esophagus should be considered in the differential diagnosis for children with acute dysphagia and barium contrast should be used with great care in such instance.
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8/20. Management and long-term follow-up of patients with types III and IV laryngotracheoesophageal clefts.

    BACKGROUND: Laryngotracheoesophageal cleft (LTEC) is a rare congenital anomaly that occurs when the trachea and esophagus fail to separate during fetal development. The 2 most severe forms of LTEC are type III, with extension of the cleft from the larynx to the carina, and type IV, with extension of the cleft into one or both mainstem bronchi. methods: Over the past 25 years, we have accumulated an experience caring for 9 patients with severe LTEC, including 4 with type III and 5 with type IV. RESULTS: morbidity and mortality from severe LTEC often result from aspiration and chronic lung disease. patients with types III (1/4) and IV (5/5) LTEC have an extremely high incidence of microgastria with a shortened esophagus for which fundoplication is ineffective. Because gastric feeding often does not initially increase stomach volume and may cause severe aspiration, we suggest early gastric division with later reconstruction of intestinal continuity in patients with microgastria. Postoperative tracheoesophageal fistulas have occurred in 6 of 9 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Generous interposition of vascularized tissue with a multiple-layer closure has helped to prevent further recurrences. Postoperative tracheomalacia may be managed with continuous positive airway pressure and may require customized endotracheal tubes. Evaluation of respiratory and digestive function, school performance, and quality of life for the surviving patients is described.
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keywords = esophagus
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9/20. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under local anesthesia for right empyema secondary to aspiration pneumonia caused by esophageal achalasia: case report.

    A 55-year-old man was admitted to the Department of internal medicine of our hospital with chief complaints of fever, cough, and right-sided chest pain. Plain radiography of the chest revealed widening of the mediastinum (attributed to esophageal achalasia), pneumonia, and right pleural effusion. According to the properties of the pleural fluid, empyema was diagnosed. Because the empyema was resistant to antibiotic treatment and was in the fibrinopurulent stage, it could not be drained effectively. Therefore, after treatment of the esophageal achalasia by balloon dilatation of the lower esophagus, the empyema was treated by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, i.e., by video-assisted thoracoscopic drainage and curettage of the empyema cavity, under local anesthesia.
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keywords = esophagus
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10/20. An esophagobronchial fistula caused by an unusual foreign body in the esophagus leading to mediastinitis with fatal outcome.

    An 8(10)/(12) year old girl with infantile cerebral paresis (ICP), severe mental retardation and seizure disorder was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with clinical signs of aspiration and died ten days later. Final diagnosis was esophagobronchial fistula caused by a foreign body in the esophagus provoking aspiration pneumonia, mediastinitis and respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The foreign body was found to be part of a plastic toy. The clinical relevance of aspiration in mentally retarded children and the peculiar nature of the foreign body impacted in the esophagus in this case are discussed. We conclude that in cases of aspiration pneumonia in mentally retarded children the presence of unusual foreign bodies should be suspected.
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