Cases reported "Pneumonia, Bacterial"

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1/13. Report on five cases of tularaemic pneumonia in a tularaemia outbreak in spain.

    A report is given on five cases of atypical tularaemic pneumonia selected from among 140 cases of tularaemic infection in a previously reported outbreak occurring in 1997. Prior to this outbreak no human cases of tularaemia had been reported in spain. All cases were diagnosed serologically. All five patients reported on here had a mild form of the disease, which was treated successfully with streptomycin in four cases and ciprofloxacin in one case. Tularaemic pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical pneumonia in spain, especially in hunters and other persons who handle animal carcasses.
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2/13. pasteurella multocida: a case report of bacteremic pneumonia and 10-year laboratory review.

    pasteurella multocida is a normal oral commensal in animals. Animal bites are often complicated by severe wound infection due to P. multocida, but systemic infection is rare. We report a patient with bacteremic pneumonia successfully treated with ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. We also review the clinical isolates of P. multocida reported by a major teaching hospital laboratory over a 10-year period. There were 23 patients, comprising the present case, 17 patients with wound infections following animal bites, one case of neonatal meningitis and associated maternal vaginal carriage of P. multocida, and three sputum isolates of doubtful significance.
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3/13. rhodococcus equi and cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a renal transplant patient: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in animals. Human infection is rare. Increasing number of cases are being reported in immunosuppressed individuals mostly associated with hiv infection, but also in solid organ transplant recipients and leukemia/lymphoma patients. We report on an adult male who developed pneumonia and gastroenteritis 4 mo after receiving a renal transplant. CT scan of the lungs showed a dominant 2.5-cm upper lobe lung mass and smaller bilateral nodules. He underwent a diagnostic bronchoscopy with fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the largest lung nodule. Smears showed histiocytic granulomatous inflammation, foamy macrophages, and acute inflammatory exudate. Scattered foamy macrophages displayed intracellular coccobacilli identifiable on Diff-Quik stain. A few cells with changes suggestive of viral inclusions were identified. cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunostain was positive in the cell block sections. lung cultures grew R. equi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of coinfection with R. equi and CMV.
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4/13. Cat cuddler's cough.

    pasteurella multocida typically causes cutaneous infections in humans following animal bites or scratches. Primary pulmonary disease, however, can occur in humans after inhalation of airborne particles or by aspiration of colonized or infected nasopharyngeal secretions containing this organism. Symptoms of P. multocida pulmonary infection in humans are variable, ranging from cough with or without hemoptysis to severe prostration. P. multocida infection of the lower respiratory tree has a predilection for elderly patients with underlying lung pathology, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. This report reminds the clinician that P. multocida can cause pulmonary infection in patients without underlying lung disease, and stresses the importance of careful history when presented with an indolent infection.
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5/13. Medical management of pneumonia caused by rhodococcus equi in a renal transplant recipient.

    rhodococcus equi is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical picture is one of necrotizing pneumonia with a tendency toward cavitation and the formation of abscesses. We report a case of pneumonia caused by R equi in a renal transplant patient. An excellent response was shown to antibiotic treatment. Symptoms regressed, and the progressive disappearance of the lesion was confirmed on follow-up computed tomography scans. Surgical intervention or other invasive procedures were not required. To our knowledge, 14 cases of infection by R equi in solid-organ transplant patients have been described to date. Nine were recipients of a renal allograft. Surgery was required in many of these patients, and all the renal transplant recipients required the use of invasive therapeutic techniques, such as pleural drainage. This is the first case of a renal transplant recipient in whom radiologic presentation was as a solid nodule without ensuing cavitation that resolved exclusively with antibiotic treatment.
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6/13. Cavitary pneumonia in an AIDS patient caused by an unusual bordetella bronchiseptica variant producing reduced amounts of pertactin and other major antigens.

    Although bordetella bronchiseptica can infect and colonize immunocompromised humans, its role as a primary pathogen in pneumonia and other respiratory processes affecting those patients remains controversial. A case of cavitary pneumonia caused by B. bronchiseptica in an AIDS patient is presented, and the basis of the seemingly enhanced pathogenic potential of this isolate (designated 814) is investigated. B. bronchiseptica was the only microorganism recovered from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and samples taken through the protected brush catheter. Unlike previous work reporting the involvement of B. bronchiseptica in cases of pneumonia, antibiotic treatment selected on the basis of in vitro antibacterial activity resulted in clearance of the infection and resolution of the pulmonary infiltrate. Although isolate 814 produced reduced amounts of several major antigens including at least one Bvg-activated factor (pertactin), the molecular basis of this deficiency was found to be BvgAS independent since the defect persisted after the bvgAS locus of isolate 814 was replaced with a wild-type bvgAS allele. Despite its prominent phenotype, isolate 814 displayed only a modest yet a significant deficiency in its ability to colonize the respiratory tracts of immunocompetent rats at an early time point. Interestingly, the antibody response elicited by isolate 814 in these animals was almost undetectable. We propose that isolate 814 may be more virulent in immunocompromised patients due, at least in part, to its innate ability to produce low amounts of immunogenic factors which may be required at only normal levels for the interaction of this pathogen with its immunocompetent natural hosts.
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7/13. Cavitary pneumonia due to rhodococcus equi in a heart transplant recipient.

    rhodococcus equi is an uncommon human pathogen that usually affects immunocompromised patients. We present a case of a 68-year-old male heart transplant recipient, who developed rhodococcal pneumonia with secondary bacteremia 10 months post-transplant. The patient was a retired carpenter who was involved in breeding of horses. He responded completely to the treatment with vancomycin and imipenem/cilastin, followed by oral ciprofloxacin and minocycline for total treatment duration of 5 months. This case highlights the association between an animal exposure and infection with a unique opportunistic pathogen.
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8/13. Fusobacteriosis presenting as community acquired pneumonia.

    Fusobacterium species are anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli, which colonise the mucus membranes of man and animals and can cause a number of clinical manifestations including Lemierre's disease (postanginal septicaemia), abdominal infection and deep-seated abscesses. The incidence of fusobacterium infections appears to be increasing, and we present three cases of fusobacteriosis who presented with features of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Cases were treated with benzyl penicillin and metronidazole, co-amoxiclav and metronidazole and amoxicillin and clarithromycin. Since some of the Fusobacterium species are resistant to penicillin and erythromycin, treatment with these antibiotics in cases of fusobacteriosis presenting as CAP may lead to treatment failure. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to recognise this rare cause of CAP.
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9/13. Report of cases of and taxonomic considerations for large-colony-forming Lancefield group C streptococcal bacteremia.

    Traditionally, group C streptococci include four species: streptococcus equisimilis, S. zooepidemicus, S. equi, and S. dysgalactiae, the first three of which are group C beta-hemolytic streptococci (GCBHS). However, many of the beta-hemolytic streptococci carrying Lancefield group C antigen isolated from clinical specimens are S. milleri. These organisms can be differentiated by colony size. We retrospectively collected data concerning large-colony-forming GCBHS bacteremia that occurred during a period of 8 years at the massachusetts General Hospital. A total of 222 cases of beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were identified; data on the Lancefield grouping were available in 192 cases: 45 cases (23.6%) were group A, 96 cases (50%) were group B, 7 cases (3.6%) were group C (large colony forming), and 44 cases (22.9%) were group G. The medical records for cases of large-colony-forming GCBHS bacteremia were reviewed. In one case, the isolate was thought to be a contaminant; the other six cases are reported (five males and one female; mean age, 55 years). All patients had severe underlying conditions, and none had a history of exposure to animals. The clinical syndromes included two cases of cellulitis and one case each of endocarditis, myocardial infarction complicated by infection, pneumonia, and myofasciitis. The diagnoses for two patients with endovascular infections were delayed. Three of the six patients had fatal outcomes, and other two, after prolonged hospitalization, were transferred to a long-term rehabilitation center. We concluded that the severe outcomes reflect delay in diagnosis and treatment as well as the severity of the underlying diseases. The taxonomy of GCBHS is discussed. More reports differentiating large- and small-colony-forming GCBHS are needed.
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10/13. Infections due to rhodococcus equi in three hiv-infected patients: microbiological findings and antibiotic susceptibility.

    Infections of rhodococcus equi, a well-known pathogen in animals which causes cavitated pneumonia similar to that caused by mycobacteria, were studied in three hiv-infected patients. This microorganism was isolated in the bronchoalveolar washings of two patients and in the sputum of the third. In two patients, Rh. equi represented the first clinical opportunistic manifestation of hiv disease. One patient died of concomitant pneumocystis infection. The eradication of the microorganism occurred in two out of three patients. It was found that no isolates were resistant to erythromycin, claritromycin, rifampin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, imipenem, gentamycin or azithromycin (MIC values < or = 0.1 microgram/ml). Moreover, the quinolones (ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin) were found to be less effective, whereas neither the beta-lactam antibiotics nor chloramphenicol were effective therapy for this microrganism. At least two antimicrobial agents should be given contemporaneously to treat these infections for a period of up to several months. Our results suggest that the combinations erythromycin rifampin or imipenem teicoplanin are the most effective treatments in Rh. equi infections.
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