Cases reported "Pneumonia, Bacterial"

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1/23. stenotrophomonas maltophilia pneumonia in a premature infant.

    Stenotrophomonas (xanthomonas) maltophilia is an aerobic, non-fermentative, gram-negative bacillus that is generally considered an opportunistic pathogen. Infections due to S. maltophilia have become increasingly important in the hospital environment. patients compromised by debilitating illnesses, surgical procedures or indwelling vascular catheters are most prone to S. maltophilia infections. To our knowledge, we report the first case of S. maltophilia pneumonia in a premature infant of 31 weeks gestational age. Although the therapy of choice for severe infections caused by S. maltophilia remains to be decided, this patient was successfully treated by amikacin.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacillus
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2/23. acinetobacter calcoaceticus pneumonia and the formation of pneumatoceles.

    Pneumatoceles are cystic lesions of the lungs often seen in children with staphylococcal pneumonia and positive-pressure ventilation. acinetobacter calcoaceticus is an aerobic, short immobile gram-negative rod, or coccobacillus, which is an omnipresent saprophyte. The variant anitratus is the most clinically significant pathogen in this family, usually presenting as a lower respiratory tract infection. Acinetobacter has been demonstrated to be one of the most common organisms found in the ICU. We present three critically ill surgery patients with Acinetobacter pneumonia, high inspiratory pressures, and the subsequent development of pneumatoceles. One of these patients died from a ruptured pneumatocele, resulting in tension pneumothorax. Treatment of pneumatoceles should center on appropriate intravenous antimicrobial therapy. This should be culture directed but is most often accomplished with imipenem. Percutaneous, computed tomographic-guided catheter placement or direct tube thoracostomy decompression of the pneumatocele may prevent subsequent rupture and potentially lethal tension pneumothorax.
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keywords = bacillus
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3/23. Complicated persistent patent ductus arteriosus with acute pneumonia in an adult.

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a malady usually identified during childhood. Prompt surgical correction provides definitive therapy with long-term survival. When not corrected, PDA leads to significant morbidity and mortality, making it a rare condition in the adult population. We report the case of a 44-year-old man with a history of persistent PDA admitted for worsening dyspnea and fever. Radiographic studies are illustrative of this complex syndrome. We review the complications and treatment alternatives in these patients.
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ranking = 0.022233143892004
keywords = complex
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4/23. rifabutin-associated hypopyon uveitis in human immunodeficiency virus-negative immunocompetent individuals.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the occurrence of rifabutin-associated hypopyon uveitis in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-negative immunocompetent individuals. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Three hiv-negative subjects on rifabutin and clarithromycin for mycobacterium avium complex infections with hypopyon uveitis are described. One subject was iatrogenically immunosuppressed because of a prior lung transplant. Two subjects had no known immunosuppressive conditions. INTERVENTION: Topical and regional steroid therapy. Discontinuation of rifabutin was required in two subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: visual acuity, resolution of hypopyon, anterior uveitis, and vitreitis. RESULTS: All subjects had resolution of hypopyon after therapy, two within 24 hours of beginning topical steroids. Vitreitis resolved with the discontinuation of rifabutin in two subjects. Chronic low-grade anterior uveitis and vitreitis were observed in the remaining subject, whose rifabutin dose was lowered but not discontinued because of active mycobacterium avium complex osteomyelitis. CONCLUSIONS: rifabutin-associated uveitis is well described in hiv-positive individuals, but it has been reported only once in an hiv-negative individual. We report two cases of hypopyon uveitis in immunocompetent individuals and one case in an immunosuppressed hiv-negative individual. All three subjects were receiving concurrent rifabutin and clarithromycin. awareness that this entity can occur in hiv negative and nonimmunosuppressed individuals and that it can mimic infectious endophthalmitis may spare the subject from an invasive workup of systemic infection.
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ranking = 31.935579437968
keywords = avium complex, avium, complex
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5/23. capnocytophaga cynodegmi cellulitis, bacteremia, and pneumonitis in a diabetic man.

    capnocytophaga cynodegmi (formerly "DF-2 like organism"), a commensal organism of the canine oral cavity, is a capnophilic, gram-negative, facultative bacillus. C. cynodegmi has rarely been encountered in human diseases. We report the first known case of cellulitis, bacteremia, and pneumonitis caused by C. cynodegmi in a diabetic man from central india following a dog bite.
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keywords = bacillus
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6/23. rhodococcus equi pneumonia in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus: case report and review.

    rhodococcus equi is a facultative, intracellular, gram-positive coccobacillus increasingly reported as an opportunistic pathogen in patients positive for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). An hiv-positive man developed R. equi pneumonia and sepsis. He failed to improve despite surgical drainage of localized infection and many empiric antibiotics. time-kill studies of R. equi isolated from the patient were performed against various antimicrobial agents to optimize therapy. levofloxacin seemed to offer excellent in vitro bactericidal activity. Antagonism was observed with certain antibiotic combinations. Our anecdotal case report suggests that fluoroquinolones such as levofloxacin may offer superior efficacy to standard therapy in rhodococcal infections; their clinical utility deserves further investigation. In view of potential antagonism, prospective susceptibility testing for various drugs and drug combinations should be considered when clinically indicated.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacillus
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7/23. Microvascular complications in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus: a case report.

    CONTEXT, The prevalence of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus is increasing and is associated with increased survival from cystic fibrosis. CASE REPORT, This study describes a case of the premature onset of disabling and widespread microvascular complications resulting from cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus. Previously asymptomatic retinopathy was diagnosed on recognition of diabetic nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS, The treatment of pulmonary exacerbations has become more complex due to the nephrotoxic potential of intravenous aminoglycoside drugs which are frequently used to control chronic pseudomonas infection in cystic fibrosis.
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ranking = 0.022233143892004
keywords = complex
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8/23. Community-acquired pneumonia: a case study.

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease commonly seen in the primary care environment. CAP is ranked as the sixth leading cause of death in the united states. It affects more than 10 million individuals per year and accounts for 500,000-1,000,000 hospital admissions. Precise diagnosis of CAP continues to be complex. Despite enormous advances in serologic analysis and antimicrobial development, at least 50% of causative pathogens are not identified. This article presents a case report of a white female in her seventies diagnosed with CAP and emphasizes the need for early detection, immunization, and prompt interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality rates. This case brings to light the dilemma practitioners can face when treating high-risk populations on an outpatient basis.
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ranking = 0.022233143892004
keywords = complex
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9/23. High-resolution computed tomography appearance of pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex infection after exposure to hot tub: case of hot-tub lung.

    Reports detailing mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in an immunocompetent host after exposure to hot tub (hot-tub lung) are few and have not focused on the radiographic presentation. On high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), hot-tub lung caused by MAC infection closely resembles subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis and is difficult to distinguish based on imaging parameters alone. Centrilobular nodules of ground-glass attenuation with beading of the interlobular septae are prominent features on HRCT. Correlation of clinical history with radiographic, pathologic, and microbiologic findings are necessary to establish a diagnosis of hot-tub lung.
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ranking = 79.83894859492
keywords = avium complex, avium, complex
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10/23. Alteplase in the treatment of complicated parapneumonic effusion: a case report.

    The treatment of complex parapneumonic effusions in children remains controversial, with some advocating less invasive, strictly medical management and others supporting a more aggressive approach of thoracotomy with or without decortication. Recent advances, including video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy, offer new options for effective treatment. We report the first case of successful resolution of a complex parapneumonic effusion in a 16-month-old girl with the use of tissue plasminogen activator (alteplase), infused via a catheter in the pleural space.
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ranking = 0.044466287784009
keywords = complex
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