Cases reported "Pneumonia, Pneumococcal"

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1/173. Asplenia as a cause of sudden unexpected death in childhood.

    Sudden unexpected death in childhood is rare. The commonest causes of such deaths are a result of fulminating infections of the respiratory or nervous systems. Other causes include unsuspected congenital abnormalities of the heart, acute metabolic disorders, and rarities such as internal hemorrhages and pulmonary thrombosis. Recognition of children with congenital asplenia who are otherwise normal but have an increased susceptibility to overwhelming sepsis is extremely difficult. We reviewed 1763 autopsy files from our institution over 5 years (1990-1995), of which 293 were classified as pediatric cases. The vast majority of the cases were stillbirths and deaths within the first year of life as a result of complex congenital anomalies. Four cases of asplenia were identified in our entire series, 3 of which were of the congenital syndromal variety and 1 of which was a case of isolated sporadic congenital asplenia. All 4 cases of asplenia were analyzed in detail with respect to autopsy findings and cause of death. Severe complex cardiac malformations were present in the congenital syndromal asplenia patients; these other malformations contributed significantly to their death. In this report, we discuss in detail the autopsy findings in a previously healthy 4-year-old girl who presented with a brief 8-hour history of being unwell and died within 4 hours of admission into the hospital. She had sporadic, isolated congenital asplenia complicated by high-grade type 6B pneumococcemia and acute bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome). Previously healthy children who clinically deteriorate very rapidly should have a blood smear done as part of their clinical workup. The detection of Howell-Jolly bodies on a peripheral blood smear can be an indicator of asplenia, and this diagnosis can be confirmed by medical imaging of the abdomen. Such steps may aid in the aggressive management of isolated congenital asplenia and thereby avert untimely death. ( info)

2/173. Experience in emergency treatment of shock due to infection.

    ( info)

3/173. Necrotizing pneumococcal pneumonia in childhood.

    We describe the rare complication of necrotizing pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal infection in 3 previously healthy pediatric patients. Lobar consolidation and pleural effusions appeared initially, followed within several days by the appearance of multiple small lucencies in the area of consolidation. In one case, necrosis progressed to a large abscess cavity. Surgical intervention was limited to treatment of pleural space complications. There were no deaths. Pulmonary parenchymal residual was limited to a thin-walled cavity in one case. ( info)

4/173. Persistent cerebellar deterioration in a patient with lobar pneumonia under lithium, carbamazepine, and trifluperidol treatment.

    We report on a patient with schizoaffective disorder who was on combination therapy of lithium, carbamazepine, and the neuroleptic trifluperidol. He experienced a lobar pneumonia and developed an acute and persistent cerebellar deterioration which was most likely due to lithium toxicity, while the serum lithium level was within the therapeutic range. The combination of lithium, carbamazepine, and neuroleptics is common, and is generally considered to be safe. The reported case suggests that this regimen might increase the risk of intoxication with potentially disabling side-effects. ( info)

5/173. Bacteremic pneumonia caused by a single clone of streptococcus pneumoniae with different optochin susceptibilities.

    Two isolates of streptococcus pneumoniae having different optochin susceptibilities were recovered from a blood sample of a 2-year-old boy with community-acquired pneumonia. The two isolates were documented to belong to a single clone on the basis of the isolates' identical serotype (23F), antibiograms by the E-test, random amplified polymorphic dna patterns generated by arbitrarily primed PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the penicillin-binding protein genes pbp2b and pbp2x. ( info)

6/173. pseudomonas aeruginosa septicaemia from an oral source.

    Oral colonisation with aerobic Gram-negative bacilli (AGNB) is abnormal and usually indicates a medically compromised state in the host. It has been postulated that oral colonisation with AGNB may predispose a patient to serious systemic infection, but proof of this assertion is lacking. This report describes an elderly patient who had oral colonisation of pseudomonas aeruginosa and developed septicaemia from an identical strain of this bacterium. ( info)

7/173. fludrocortisone for the treatment of heparin-induced hyperkalemia.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the use of fludrocortisone for heparin-induced hyperkalemia and to briefly review the available literature relating to heparin-induced hyperkalemia. CASE SUMMARY: A 34-year-old African-American man was admitted to the hospital for pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis. His hospital course was complicated by the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, severe sepsis, acute renal failure, placement of a tracheostomy, and recurrent nasopharyngeal bleeding. The patient also developed a subclavian vein thrombosis with extension to the cephalic and basilic veins secondary to placement of a pulmonary artery catheter; anticoagulation with heparin was required. On day 9 of heparin therapy, the patient developed symptomatic hyperkalemia refractory to conventional therapies. Oral fludrocortisone 0.1 mg/d was initiated with resolution of the hyperkalemia within 24 hours despite the continued administration of heparin. DATA SOURCES: A medline (1966-October 1999) search was performed to identify case reports and clinical trials discussing heparin-induced hyperkalemia or the use of fludrocortisone for hyperkalemia. DISCUSSION: heparin has the potential to induce hyperkalemia by several mechanisms, including decreased aldosterone synthesis, reduction in number and affinity of aldosterone II receptors, and atrophy of the renal zona glomerulosa. fludrocortisone promotes potassium excretion by its direct actions on the renal distal tubules. In this patient, fludrocortisone resulted in a significant and rapid decrease in serum potassium even with continued heparin administration and acute renal failure. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests that fludrocortisone is a reasonable alternative therapy for patients with hyperkalemia secondary to heparin therapy when the continued administration of heparin is necessary. ( info)

8/173. Nosocomial pneumococcal infection: an outbreak.

    When an outbreak of pneumococcal disease occurs an institution--be it a hospital, nursing home, day care center, or other facility--management includes treatment of affected cases and prevention of new cases. patients and staff should be tested for nasopharyngeal carriage and their vaccination status ascertained. Antibiotic use should be reviewed, especially if the causative strain is resistant. ( info)

9/173. Managing the nonsurgical candidate with an empyema related to community-acquired lobar pneumonia.

    This case study reviews the medical management for a 76-year-old patient with a cardiac history and recurrent admissions for a persistent pneumonia. Computed tomography showed evidence of an empyema in the right middle and lower lobes of his lung. The standard treatment for an empyema is a thoracotomy and long-term antibiotics. However, the patient's cardiac history disqualified surgery as an option. Therefore the management plan was composed of antibiotics and treatment of his symptoms. The patient's symptoms improved after a week of levofloxacin (Levaquin), prednisone, bilevel positive airway pressure mask as required, and oxygen. He was discharged with home care, oxygen, Levaquin, tapering doses of prednisone, and previous medications. At a 6-week follow-up examination, the patient was asymptomatic and had marked improvement noted on chest radiograph. The advanced practice nurse played an important role in this patient's recovery by conducting patient education and coordinating follow-up after his release. ( info)

10/173. Bacteremic pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant pneumococci in 3 patients treated unsuccessfully with azithromycin and successfully with levofloxacin.

    Three patients with bacteremic pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae were treated unsuccessfully with azithromycin. One S. pneumoniae isolate carried a mef determinant for an efflux pump; a second isolate had an erm determinant. All 3 patients were successfully treated with levofloxacin, an antipneumococcal fluoroquinolone. ( info)
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