Cases reported "Pneumonia, Viral"

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1/239. cytomegalovirus associated neonatal pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome: a causal relationship?

    lung injury caused by intrauterine inflammation has recently been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Wilson-Mikity syndrome (WMS). This article supports this theory by suggesting a causative role of intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection for the development of WMS. A male premature infant, born at 33 weeks of gestational age, developed chronic lung disease compatible with WMS and diagnostic evaluation was positive for CMV infection. High-resolution computed tomography scan and lung histology revealed typical features of WMS in association with signs of interstitial pneumonia. CMV was found in urine, breastmilk, bronchoalveolar lavage material and lung tissue from open lung biopsy. Follow-up after treatment with ganciclovir and steroids showed resolving lung disease at the age of 6, 10 and 16 months, with lung function signs of mild obstruction. Assuming that a chance coexistence of cytomegalovirus pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome is rather unlikely, it is possible that intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection caused a pattern of lung injury consistent with Wilson-Mikity syndrome. Further cases of Wilson-Mikity syndrome should be investigated as to a possible role of congenital infection.
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keywords = virus
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2/239. coronavirus pneumonia following autologous bone marrow transplantation for breast cancer.

    infectious bronchitis virus, otherwise known as coronavirus, can cause mild upper respiratory tract illnesses in children and adults. Rarely has coronavirus been linked, either by serology or nasal wash, to pneumonia. We report a case of a young woman who, following treatment for stage IIIA breast cancer using a high-dose chemotherapy regimen followed by autologous bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, developed respiratory failure and was found to have coronavirus pneumonia as diagnosed by electron microscopy from BAL fluid. We propose that coronavirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute respiratory failure in cancer patients who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic support.
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ranking = 1.2857142857143
keywords = virus
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3/239. Human herpesvirus-6 and sudden death in infancy: report of a case and review of the literature.

    Investigation of sudden death in infancy is a vital function of the medical examiner's office. Surveillance of these cases may lead to recognition of new diseases or new manifestations of previously described diseases. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is a relatively newly described virus that has been recognized as a cause of acute febrile illness in early childhood. While most cases are apparently self-limited, seven fatal cases have been reported. We present a case of a seven-month-old Latin American male with recent otitis media and vomiting who was found dead in bed. autopsy revealed interstitial pneumonitis with an atypical polymorphous lymphocytic infiltrate in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow, associated with erythrophagocytosis. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue was positive for HHV-6 and negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). HHV-6 was also detected in the atypical lymphoid infiltrate by in-situ hybridization.
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ranking = 1.1428571428571
keywords = virus
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4/239. The first case of H5N1 avian influenza infection in a human with complications of adult respiratory distress syndrome and Reye's syndrome.

    Avian influenza virus was not known to cause systemic infection in humans before. We report a 3-year-old boy with good past health who developed pneumonia caused by H5N1 avian influenza a virus (A/hong kong/156/97). The virus was isolated from a tracheal aspirate. There were complications of Reye's syndrome, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ system failure. He had a history of receiving aspirin. His adult respiratory distress syndrome did not respond to endotracheal surfactant replacement therapy. He died 6 days after admission. Clinicians should be alert to the importance of a new human influenza strain.
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ranking = 0.42857142857143
keywords = virus
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5/239. cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a patient with breast cancer on chemotherapy: case report and review of the literature.

    cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in the setting of non-transplantation patients is a rarity. We present a case of CMV pneumonitis in a woman with stage IV breast cancer, with brain metastases, receiving both chemotherapy and systemic corticosteroids. A review of the literature reveals this as a unique case. Potential viral etiologies should therefore be considered in cancer patients with pneumonia receiving non-transplantation chemotherapy-regimens, particularly if steroids are a component of their therapy.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = virus
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6/239. Concurrent pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus pneumonia after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    A 46-year-old woman developed concurrent CMV and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) 140 days after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) for AML. She was seropositive for CMV before undergoing APBSCT and had required prednisone for immune thrombocytopenia and allergic dermatitis for 9 weeks prior to the onset of pneumonia. She had also been receiving PCP prophylaxis with pentamidine aerosol every month for 3 months before developing symptoms. The pneumonia was complicated by severe hypoxia, requiring ventilator support and pneumothorax requiring chest tube thoracostomy. She recovered following treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), prednisone, gancyclovir and intravenous immunoglobulin. Although the overall incidence of severe CMV disease is low after APBSCT, preventive measures such as surveillance culture and secondary prophylaxis with gancyclovir may be warranted in patients whose cellular immune response is further compromised by corticosteroid use or other factors.
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ranking = 0.57142857142857
keywords = virus
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7/239. Massive pulmonary hemorrhage due to cytomegalovirus infection in a Japanese patient with alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficient emphysema.

    Although alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is one of the most common hereditary diseases and a recognized cause of emphysema in Caucasians, variants of this deficiency are extremely rare among Orientals. We present here a Japanese emphysema patient with the AAT deficiency variant originally identified as S(iiyama). After an 8-year follow-up period, the patient suffered from repeated pulmonary pseudomonas aeruginosa infection for 4 years. He died suddenly of massive pulmonary hemorrhage. The pathologic examination revealed a necrotic hematoma in the right S10 lobe, which exhibited pneumonia due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Pulmonary hemorrhage due to CMV can occur and be fatal in patients with emphysema and AAT deficiency.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = virus
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8/239. rhinovirus infections in myelosuppressed adult blood and marrow transplant recipients.

    Scant data are available on the clinical significance of rhinovirus infections in immunocompromised patients. We reviewed the clinical courses of and outcomes for 22 myelosuppressed adult blood and marrow transplant recipients with rhinovirus infections who were hospitalized at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston) from January 1992 to January 1997. In 15 patients (68%), illnesses remained confined to the upper respiratory tract. Seven patients (32%) developed fatal pneumonia. These patients had profound respiratory failure a mean of 12 days (range, 3-21 days) after the onset of symptoms. In six of these seven cases, rhinovirus was isolated before death from a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen and/or an endotracheal aspirate. Five patients underwent autopsies, one of which revealed disseminated aspergillosis and four of which revealed interstitial pneumonitis and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome and no other organisms. In conclusion, rhinovirus infections may be associated with considerable pulmonary-related morbidity and mortality in severely myelosuppressed immunocompromised patients.
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ranking = 1.1428571428571
keywords = virus
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9/239. cytomegalovirus pneumonitis as an initial presentation in an hiv-infected patient.

    Human immunodeficiency (hiv) infection often presents with an unusual symptom complex. Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a frequent opportunistic infection in the late stage of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), CMV pneumonitis as an initial manifestation of hiv infection is not documented in the medical literature. We report a previously healthy patient with bilateral interstitial pulmonary infiltrates who was found to have CMV pneumonitis; only later was hiv virus infection diagnosed. cytomegalovirus is a frequently isolated pathogen from respiratory secretions in AIDS patients. The role of CMV as a sole pulmonary pathogen is controversial. After exclusion of other pathogens, CMV was demonstrated by histological changes and viral culture in our case. This case indicates that pulmonary infiltrates presenting as the first manifestation of hiv infection can be caused by CMV infection.
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10/239. Intravenous ribavirin therapy for adenovirus pneumonia.

    We report on the effectiveness of intravenous ribavirin for severe adenoviral pneumonia in a 10-month-old male following orthotopic liver transplantation. On day 20 post-transplantation, he developed high fever, marked respiratory compromise, and hypoxemia. The chest radiograph showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid grew adenovirus, serotype 1. Marked clinical and radiological improvement was noted after intravenous ribavirin therapy. A prospective clinical trial is needed to determine the efficacy of ribavirin therapy for severe adenovirus disease.
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ranking = 0.85714285714286
keywords = virus
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