Cases reported "Pneumonia, Viral"

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1/82. Human herpesvirus-6 and sudden death in infancy: report of a case and review of the literature.

    Investigation of sudden death in infancy is a vital function of the medical examiner's office. Surveillance of these cases may lead to recognition of new diseases or new manifestations of previously described diseases. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is a relatively newly described virus that has been recognized as a cause of acute febrile illness in early childhood. While most cases are apparently self-limited, seven fatal cases have been reported. We present a case of a seven-month-old Latin American male with recent otitis media and vomiting who was found dead in bed. autopsy revealed interstitial pneumonitis with an atypical polymorphous lymphocytic infiltrate in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow, associated with erythrophagocytosis. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue was positive for HHV-6 and negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). HHV-6 was also detected in the atypical lymphoid infiltrate by in-situ hybridization.
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ranking = 1
keywords = herpesvirus, herpes
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2/82. Varicella pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome in an adult.

    Primary varicella infection is uncommon in adults, but carries a higher rate of morbidity and mortality than in children. pneumonia is the most common complication of primary varicella infection in adults. However, varicella pneumonia complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is very rare. We report a case of ARDS secondary to varicella pneumonia in a 26-year-old man with primary varicella. The patient was otherwise healthy and had no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The initial chest radiograph showed bilateral reticulonodular infiltrates, which quickly evolved to diffuse alveolar consolidations. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed a ratio of arterial partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen of 87. Abnormal liver function and thrombocytopenia were also noted. Treatment consisted of mechanical ventilatory support and intravenous administration of acyclovir. His pulmonary condition gradually improved and he was successfully weaned from the ventilator 1 week later. He was discharged on the 15th hospital day with a favorable outcome. His pulmonary function improved progressively, with normal spirometry and lung volumes, but persistent mild impairment of diffusing capacity, 6 months after discharge.
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ranking = 16.436008701372
keywords = varicella
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3/82. Neonatal herpes simplex virus type II.

    This description of a tragic case of infection with neonatal herpes simplex virus type II is presented to alert professional nurses to the fact that this disease is sometimes difficult to recognize, but must be considered when a newborn has any unusual symptoms. Neonatal herpes simplex type II may have a slow and insidious onset, and be masked by many other symptoms. Even though the virus might be present in a newborn, the symptoms might not be apparent until several days after birth; this is a problem because infants are now leaving hospitals much earlier and can become ill after hospital discharge. parents, especially first-time parents, may not recognize subtle signs of illness in their child. Therefore, the onus is on the health care provider to evaluate each infant for symptomatology and provide education to parents along with instructions to obtain early follow-up care for all newborns.
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ranking = 0.57488422668668
keywords = herpes
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4/82. nitric oxide in the treatment of fulminant pulmonary failure in a young pregnant woman with varicella pneumonia.

    extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is the recommended treatment for fulminant pulmonary failure due to varicella pneumonia. However, in pregnancy fetal viability during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is generally poor resulting in either therapeutic or spontaneous abortion. The present case is to our knowledge the first report on the treatment with nitric oxide to improve oxygenation in a pregnant woman with fulminant pulmonary failure due to varicella pneumonia. Adding 20 parts per million nitric oxide to the inspiratory gas increased arterial oxygen saturation from 75 to 88%, and it could be kept at this level. Due to a vaginal bleeding, an emergency Caesarean section was performed with successful outcome for the fetus. The mother started to improve after delivery and could be weaned from nitric oxide after 5 days. We conclude that inhalation of nitric oxide may be a good alternative to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the treatment of fulminant pulmonary failure due to varicella pneumonia in pregnancy.
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ranking = 23.010412181921
keywords = varicella
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5/82. A baby, a virus, and a rat.

    The authors present a case initially thought to be a child abuse homicide that, after complete autopsy and thorough investigation, was determined to be caused by a viral infection and complicated by postmortem animal activity. Neonatal herpes simplex infection and postmortem skin defects are discussed.
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ranking = 0.095814037781113
keywords = herpes
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6/82. Varicella-zoster virus detection by polymerase chain reaction using bronchoalveolar lavage specimens.

    We report the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques from a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen for the successful early diagnosis in a case of atypical but severe varicella-zoster virus (VZV) pneumonitis. Atypical presentations of disseminated VZV frequently prolong the time required for accurate diagnosis, resulting in increased morbidity, or mortality. Although further investigation is necessary to determine the sensitivity and positive predictive value of this test, PCR analysis of bronchoscopic specimens may expedite the diagnosis of disseminated VZV.
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ranking = 3.4522795521739
keywords = varicella, zoster
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7/82. Unusual presentation of measles giant cell pneumonia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    The typical clinical presentation of measles in a normal immunocompetent host includes cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, Koplik's spots, and rash. However, in an immunocompromised host, measles may have an atypical clinical presentation and may be commonly associated with severe pneumonia or encephalitis. We report a fatal case of measles pneumonia without any clinical features that suggest measles in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
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ranking = 0.043939767941809
keywords = encephalitis
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8/82. Perinatal herpes simplex infection presenting with pneumonia and pleural effusions.

    An unusual case of perinatal herpes infection presenting with pneumonia and pleural effusions is described.
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ranking = 0.47907018890557
keywords = herpes
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9/82. herpes simplex virus 1 pneumonia: conventional chest radiograph pattern.

    The aim of this study was to describe the findings on plain chest radiographs in patients with herpes simplex virus pneumonia (HSVP). The study was based on 17 patients who at a retrospective search have been found to have a monoinfection with herpes simplex virus. The diagnosis was established by isolation of the virus from material obtained during fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) which also included broncho-alveolar lavage and tissue sampling. Fourteen patients had a chest radiograph performed within 24 h of the date of the FOB. Two radiographs showed no abnormalities of the lung parenchyma. The radiographs of the other 12 patients showed lung opacification, predominantly lobar or more extensive and always bilateral. Most patients presented with a mixed airspace and interstitial pattern of opacities, but 11 of 14 showed at least an airspace consolidation. Lobar, segmental, or subsegmental atelectasis was present in 7 patients, and unilateral or bilateral pleural effusion in 8 patients, but only in 1 patient was it a large amount. In contradiction to the literature which reports a high correlation between HSVP and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 11 of 14 patients did not meet the pathophysiological criteria for ARDS. The radiologist may suggest the diagnosis of HSVP when bilateral airspace consolidation or mixed opacities appear in a susceptible group of patients who are not thought to have ARDS or pulmonary edema. The definite diagnosis of HSV pneumonia can be established only on the basis of culture of material obtained by broncho-alveolar lavage.
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ranking = 0.19162807556223
keywords = herpes
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10/82. Intravenous immunoglobulin in adult varicella pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    pneumonia is a rare but serious complication of varicella in adults. We report a case of a previously healthy 32-year-old man with varicella pneumonia that was complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. He was treated successfully with acyclovir and intravenous immunoglobulin in addition to mechanical ventilation. We conclude that intravenous immunoglobulin, in combination with acyclovir, is a safe and probably effective therapy for adult varicella pneumonia that is complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome.
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ranking = 23.010412181921
keywords = varicella
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