Cases reported "Pneumonia"

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1/19. bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia and bacteremia following bone marrow transplantation.

    bordetella bronchiseptica is a frequent cause of respiratory infections in animals but rarely causes disease in humans. We describe a patient with B. bronchiseptica pneumonia and bacteremia that developed following bone marrow transplantation. B. bronchiseptica infection persisted despite antimicrobial therapy and may have progressed because of the combined effects of the patient's underlying immunosuppression and the antimicrobial antagonism between doxycycline and ciprofloxacin.
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2/19. Fatal septicemia due to mycoplasma arginini: a new human zoonosis.

    A 64-year-old slaughterhouse worker with advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma developed septicemia and pneumonia. mycoplasma arginini, a wall-free prokaryote found in a variety of domestic animal hosts, was repeatedly isolated from blood and bronchial washings from the patient. immunosuppression, in part caused by hypogammaglobulinemia, probably played a key role in predisposing the patient to a fatal infection. This case suggests that animal mycoplasmas should be considered in the list of infectious agents acquired by immunosuppressed hosts.
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3/19. rhodococcus equi infection in patients with AIDS.

    rhodococcus equi is an emerging opportunistic pathogen of hiv-I infected patients. It is an aerobic, Gram-positive coryneform bacterium which acts as a facultative intracellular micro-organism, multiplying in the phagosome of macrophages. Eighteen cases of R. equi infection in hiv-I positive patients have now been reported. Sixteen of these had pneumonia, of which 12 had cavitating lung lesions. A history of contact with farm animals, which are the primary hosts of R. equi, was found in only three patients. There was a delay in establishing a definite diagnosis in most cases as this depended upon the isolation of R. equi from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or blood. Treatment included surgical resection in five patients and erythromycin with a second antibiotic in 13 cases, but II of the 18 patients died from the infection. In this report we describe our experience of R. equi pneumonia in two AIDS patients and review the published cases of the disease in man.
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4/19. Case report: rhodococcus equi pneumonia in a patient infected by the human immunodeficiency virus.

    rhodococcus equi, a facultative intracellular bacterium, is a common cause of pulmonary infection in farm animals, especially foals. Pulmonary and disseminated infection caused by this organism is occasionally seen in humans, especially in patients whose cell-mediated immunity has been altered by glucocorticoids or cytotoxic chemotherapy. Not surprisingly, the organism may cause serious disease in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected humans whose T cell-dependent immune system has been profoundly suppressed. This report describes an hiv infected patient with rhodococcus equi pneumonia and reviews nine additional hiv-infected patients. Treatment in humans is not standardized. Studies in foals indicate that erythromycin and rifampin together are the treatment of choice. The patient in this report responded to this treatment briefly before relapsing and dying of the infection.
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5/19. hypersensitivity pneumonitis after exposure to isocyanates.

    Four patients exposed to isocyanate vapour developed dyspnoea associated with restriction and reduced gas transfer as well as moderate airways obstruction on lung function testing. In one patient bilateral radiographic shadowing was present and an open lung biopsy was performed. The microscopic appearances ranged from acute inflammation to end-stage fibrosis but the centribular accentuation of disease and the presence of areas resembling bronchopulmonary aspergillosis suggested that the process was a hypersensitivity response to inhaled allergen. Challenge tests with albumin and toluene diisocyanate-albumin were carried out in sensitized and control rabbits. The sensitized animals developed extensive lung damage of the type associated with an arthus reaction. It is suggested that patients exposed to isocyanates may occasionally develop a hypersensitivity pneumonitis rather than the more usual asthmatic syndrome.
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6/19. rhodococcus equi infection in the patient with AIDS: literature review and report of an unusual case.

    rhodococcus equi is an aerobic, intracellular, gram-positive rod-coccus that is partially acid fast. The organism is primarily a pathogen in animals and has only rarely been seen in immunocompromised humans. Its most common manifestation is a slowly progressive pneumonia that may cavitate. Infections are thought to be acquired via respiratory exposure to animals or soil. R. equi infections are difficult to treat, usually requiring prolonged administration of parenteral antibiotics and often necessitating surgical drainage. A case of cavitary pneumonia and recurrent bacteremia with R. equi in a patient with AIDS is reported, and the current literature on R. equi infections in humans is reviewed.
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7/19. Human infection with streptococcus zooepidemicus (Lancefield group C): three case reports.

    Three unrelated severe infections with streptococcus zooepidemicus occurred in england in 1985. The first patient developed septic arthritis, which has not been recorded before with this organism. The second died with septicaemia, pneumonia and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, the only record so far of nephritis following sporadic S. zooepidemicus infection and of nephritis and systemic sepsis in the same patient. The third patient experienced septicaemia during pregnancy but recovered without complications. A likely animal source of infection was found in only one case.
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8/19. bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    This case report describes two episodes of pneumonia caused by bordetella bronchiseptica in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. There was discrepancy between the in vitro sensitivity testing of the organism and subsequent clinical response to several antimicrobial agents. Human infection with B bronchiseptica is almost always associated with severe underlying disease and contact with an appropriate animal reservoir.
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9/19. Opportunistic lung infection caused by Rhodococcus (corynebacterium) equi.

    Rhodococcus (formerly corynebacterium) equi, a common animal pathogen, can cause a slowly evolving pneumonia in humans, particularly immunocompromised people. The authors describe two patients; one with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. On chest radiographs, R. equi produces chronic, localized pulmonary opacities that can cavitate. The main differential diagnoses are tuberculosis and fungal infection.
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10/19. A new chlamydia psittaci strain, TWAR, isolated in acute respiratory tract infections.

    During a 2 1/2-year period, we studied 386 University of washington students with acute respiratory disease, to determine whether a chlamydia psittaci strain, here designated TWAR, is an important respiratory pathogen. Serologic evidence of recent TWAR infection was found in 13 students, and the organism was isolated from 8 of these. TWAR infection occurred in 12 percent of the students who had pneumonia (9 of 76), 5 percent of those with bronchitis (3 of 63), and 1 percent of those with pharyngitis (1 of 150). The TWAR infections occurred throughout the study period. pharyngitis, often accompanied by laryngitis, was a common first symptom. Clinically, the infections resembled those with Myco-plasma pneumoniae; therefore, the patients were given courses of erythromycin used for the treatment of M. pneumoniae infections. This therapy proved to be inadequate. The limited data available suggest that the TWAR strain is a "human" C. psittaci that is spread from human to human, without a bird or animal host.
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