Cases reported "Pneumonia"

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1/82. Rheumatoid arthritis associated with methotrexate-induced pneumonitis: improvement with i.v. cyclophosphamide therapy.

    Pneumonitis is one of the most serious adverse effects associated with low-dose weekly methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Immediate cessation of MTX, and the introduction of oxygen therapy and glucocorticoids usually results in a dramatic improvement in the pulmonary toxicity. We report here a case of MTX-induced pneumonitis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Severe hypoxemia and interstitial infiltration in both lung fields did not respond to the withdrawal of MTX and the administration of oxygen and steroid pulse therapy. When intravenous cyclophosphamide (CYC) pulse therapy was initiated, however, rapid physiologic and radiographic improvement was seen. Our case suggests that CYC treatment may have a beneficial effect on MTX-induced pneumonitis that is resistant to steroid therapy.
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keywords = arthritis
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2/82. Chronic obstructive pneumonia caused by a vertebral body osteophyte.

    Osteophytes associated with spondylosis have been implicated as a cause of multiple extraspinal manifestations. Symptoms are more likely to occur with the large osteophytes associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. In the thoracic region, osteophytes have been reported infrequently as a cause of extraspinal complications. We report a case in which an anterior thoracic vertebral osteophyte was responsible for chronic obstructive pneumonia due to obstruction of the right main stem bronchus. The patient's condition improved considerably after surgical resection of the compressing thoracic osteophyte.
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ranking = 0.001506084195581
keywords = idiopathic
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3/82. Pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis in a patient with idiopathic pneumonia syndrome after bone marrow transplantation.

    An adolescent female underwent bone marrow transplantation for relapsed leukemia and developed acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome. Her lung disease responded to large doses of methylprednisolone but evolved to pulmonary fibrosis and pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in the convalescent period. Pulmonary function tests revealed a restrictive pattern. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema are complications not only of obstructive but also of restrictive lung disease and vary with respect to time of onset.
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ranking = 0.0075304209779048
keywords = idiopathic
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4/82. Granulomatous pneumonitis. A result of intrapleural instillation of quinacrine and talcum powder.

    A 73-year-old man with bilateral recurrent pleural effusions had relief of symptoms with intrapleural instillation of quinacrine hydrochloride and talcum powder. At postmortem, examination of the lungs showed granulomatous consolidation of a portion of the lower lobe of the left lung. The granulomatous reaction was in response to large numbers of talc and quinacrine crystals within the pulmonary parenchyma. A review of the literature disclosed no reports of pulmonary damage following the intrapleural administration of these two agents. This unusual complication of therapy may have resulted from the aspiration of crystals through a small, undetected bronchopleural fistula.
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ranking = 0.10613432061925
keywords = still
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5/82. pemphigus vulgaris in association with silicosis.

    We report on a sixty-seven year old miner with pemphigus vulgaris characterised clinically by a three month history of relapsing oral lesions and blisters/erosions on the trunk, axillae and extremities, histologically by suprabasal cleavage due to acantholysis, immunologically by the epidermal intercellular net-like pattern due to deposits of IgG- and IgM-antibodies and complement c3 in the direct immunofluorescence as well as by serum antibodies to desmoglein 3 (130 KD) and plakoglobin (85 KD) by immunoblotting analysis. silicosis has already been known for 6 years. In addition, antinuclear antibodies, anti-ssDNA-antibodies and anti-topoisomerase antibodies were found. Clinical improvement and clearing of skin symptoms could be achieved by systemic steroids in combination with cyclophosphamide. However, the patient died of sepsis deriving from recalcitrant pneumonia. Although the association of silicosis with various autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and dermatomyositis has been reported many times, our patient is, to the best of our knowledge, the second case with features of the two diseases: pemphigus vulgaris and silicosis.
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keywords = arthritis
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6/82. Pneumonitis after intravenous self-administration of solvent.

    Intravenous self-administration of petroleum distillates is a rare condition. Most experience with petroleum distillates poisoning is with ingestion by children, and the most common and serious manifestation is chemical pneumonitis. We report a case of chemical pneumonitis after intravenous self-administration of ink solvent.
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ranking = 0.042453728247701
keywords = still
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7/82. Aspergilloma: comparison of treatment methods and prognoses.

    We report five cases of aspergilloma. Three patients had a previous history of tuberculosis, including one who fully recovered after resection of the right lower lobe. Four patients were treated mainly with oral itraconazole. Two of these four patients, died, one of massive hemosputa, and one of heart valve disease, while two had a good outcome, although one of them has since developed respiratory insufficiency and has received oxygen therapy. In itraconazole therapy, the daily dose may be 200 mg or more, and the duration of treatment may be 1 year or more. Percutaneous intracavitary instillation of amphotericin b, performed in one patient, showed no efficacy. The efficacy of this treatment may depend on the width and number of drainage bronchi, and on the mechanism of acceleration of degradation of the fungus ball. It is important to carefully choose the therapy for aspergilloma, with due consideration being given to the patient's pulmonary function and general status.
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ranking = 0.02122686412385
keywords = still
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8/82. rhodococcus equi infection in transplant recipients: a case of mistaken identity and review of the literature.

    The incidence of rhodococcus equi infection in solid-organ transplant recipients continues to rise throughout the world. Unfortunately, this opportunistic pathogen is still underestimated and potentially disregarded by physicians and microbiology laboratories due to its morphology on Gram staining. Pulmonary involvement is the most common finding in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of a 63-year-old heart-transplant recipient who presented with increasing fatigue and nonproductive cough for 3 weeks. After full evaluation, a lung abscess was demonstrated by thoracic computerized tomography (CT). blood and sputum cultures were remarkable for heavy "diphtheroids." Although the Gram-stain result was initially interpreted as a contaminant, a clinical suspicion for Rhodococcus assisted in further investigation. Broncheoalveolar lavage and CT-guided biopsy of the lung abscess revealed heavy growth of diphtheroids. However, further evaluation by a reference laboratory demonstrated mycolic acid staining consistent with R. equi. Surgical drainage and prolonged antibiotic therapy resulted in complete remission of the pneumonia and abscess. This represents the fourth reported case of R. equi infection in a heart transplant recipient. It is imperative that all physicians and laboratory staff consider R. equi when an immunocompromised patient has any type of pneumonia, especially with abscess formation.
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ranking = 0.02122686412385
keywords = still
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9/82. Etanercept (Enbrel) administration for idiopathic pneumonia syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Acute pulmonary dysfunction remains a frequent and severe complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Almost half of the pulmonary insults that occur in this seating are noninfectious in origin and are referred to as idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS). In this series of 3 patients, etanercept (Enbrel; Immunex, Seattle, WA), a soluble, dimeric tumor necrosis factor alpha-binding protein, was administered to 3 consecutive pediatric allogeneic BMT recipients with IPS. The administration of etanercept, in combination with standard immunosuppressive therapy, was well tolerated and associated with significant improvements in pulmonary dysfunction within the first week of therapy. These data suggest that etanercept may represent a safe, non-cross-reactive, therapeutic option for patients with IPS and that clinical trials studying etanercept for this indication are warranted.
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ranking = 0.0075304209779048
keywords = idiopathic
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10/82. Spectrum of bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection after intravesical BCG immunotherapy.

    Intravesical instillation of bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) effectively treats transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Occasionally, BCG infection complicates such treatment. In some patients, infection appears early (within 3 months after instillation) and is characterized by generalized symptoms, with pneumonitis and hepatitis. Late-presentation disease occurs >1 year after the first BCG treatment and usually involves focal infection of the genitourinary tract (the site at which bacteria were introduced) and/or other sites that are typical for reactivation of mycobacterial disease, such as the vertebral spine or the retroperitoneal tissues. Noncaseating granulomas are found in the majority of cases, whether early or late. Most patients respond to treatment with antituberculous drugs; in early-presentation disease, when features of hypersensitivity predominate, glucocorticosteroids are sometimes added. Late localized infection often requires surgical resection.
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ranking = 0.042453728247701
keywords = still
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